The Mishnah, Y'vamos 10:4, quotes Rabbi Yosi as follows:

כל שפוסל על ידי אחרים פוסל על ידי עצמו, וכל שאין פוסל על ידי אחרים אינו פוסל על ידי עצמו

If I correctly understand the explanation of the רע״ב and ר׳ קהתי based on ר׳ יצחק נפחא in the Talmud, R. Yosi means this:

Suppose Aaron is married to Miriam, and her sister Leah is married to Baruch. Miriam and Baruch both leave the country and are determined to be dead based on testimony. (In the case of each death, either two witnesses inform the survivors and are believed, or one witness informs the court and the court declares the person dead.) Then Aaron marries Leah, but then Miriam and Baruch show up alive.

Well, if Aaron and Miriam were only kidushin-married, then we're afraid people will think that they weren't married at all (because the kidushin were based on a condition that wasn't met, for example) [and won't know about Leah and Baruch's marriage], and will thus think Aaron and Leah's marriage was valid. So we require Aaron to issue a bill of divorce to Leah, lest people think she can end a marriage without one. Therefore Leah cannot now go back to Baruch (because she looks like someone who's been married to another man, who cannot go back to her previous husband) and Miriam cannot go back to Aaron (because she looks like his divorcee's sister, which is a prohibited relationship).

But if Aaron and Miriam were fully married, then we aren't afraid people will think they were never married. Therefore, no bill of divorce as outlined above is necessary. Therefore, Leah doesn't look like Aaron's divorcee and so no one is prohibited to her previous husband.

If Aaron and Miriam were fully married, I don't understand why Leah can go back to Baruch. Back in 10:1 we say:

האשה שהלך בעלה למדינת הים ובאו ואמרו לה "מת בעליך" וניסת ואחר כך בא בעלה, תצא מזה ומזה

— that a woman who married based on incorrect information that her husband had died cannot go back to him. R. Yosi doesn't argue that point there (though he does argue another). Why can Leah go back to Baruch?


The question is why Mishna 1 doen't apply and how can Leah come back to Baruch according to Rabbi Yose. To find the answer, we need to add one statement in quotation of Mishna 1 and 3.

וצריכה גט מזה ומזה

Leah needs a ge from Aharon and from Baruch.

נישאת על פי בית דין תצא ופטורה מן הקרבן ושלא על פי בית דין תצא וחייבת בקרבן

Rav Yitschak Nafcha says that Rabbi Yose disagree with Tana Kama when Myriam was fully married, Leah comes back to Baruch and Myriam to Aharon. And this apply even if Leah was allowed to him by Bet Din through a single witness.

The reason is that Rabbi Yose disagrees with Tana Kama (1) regarding the rational of Mishna 1. According to Rabbi Yose in Mishna 1 the reason for the prohibition, that is, that Leah doesn't come back to Baruch is that people may think that she divorced and afterwards married an other man and next married a second time Baruch. And we need to make clear that it's prohibited.

In our case, marriage doesn't match between Leah and Aharon, because she is the sister of his wife. Now people see that Myriam is alive and understand that marriage between Aharon and Leah was nothing. So, Aharon will not give a Get to Leah. And people will not think that leah comes back to Baruch in second marriage after she divorced her second husband. So Mishna 1 is not a contradiction to the Din of Rabbi Yose.

Source of this answer is Rashba.

אשתו וגיסו דליכא למימר תנאה הו"ל בנשואין דאינו פוסל ע"י אחרים. פירוש אפילו נשאת על פי ב"ד ובעד אחד, דסבירא ליה דכולה מלתא משום גזרה שמא יאמרו גרש זה ונשא זה הוא, והכא ליכא למיגזר, אלא כולי עלמא ידעי דסהדי אטעינהו ומינס אניסא, והלכך אינו פוסל על ידי אחרים. ‏

(1). For Tana Kama the reason is a knas to encourage her to check with scrutiny that Baruch died. This knas has collateral damages. Maybe she checked as good as she can but finally the husband came back.

Afterwards I did seen that all this is in Rashi (Yevamot 95b, on the words of Rabbi Yitschack Nafcha).

  1. וקא"ל רבי יוסי אשתו דליכא למימר תנאה הואי ליה - להאי באשתו ראשונה וכ"ע ידעי דנשואי שניה טעות הן ולא אתי למימר גירשה בעלה ונשאה זה because he married Myriam, and a marriage involving intercourse cannot be conditioned because if the condition wasn't fulfilled, the past intercourse is biat znut

  2. דהא אפילו גירשה בעלה אסורה להאי ומידע ידעי דסהדי אטעינהו אינו פוסל ע"י גיסו כשאר אשה הנשאת בעד אחד דהתם הוא דאתי למימר גירש זה כו' ואי מחזיר אמרי זה מחזיר גרושתו מן הנשואין here people will not say he divorced Myriam and married Leah because M. and L. are sisters and it's impossible to marry the sister of his own divorced

  3. אבל הכא לא הלכך אין פוסל נמי על ידי עצמו

  4. אבל היכא דהואי קמייתא ארוסתו דאיכא למימר תנאה הוה ליה בקדושין סברי אינשי דנשואי שניה נשואין גמורין ואמרי גירשה בעלה ונשאה זה But if Myriam was only mekuddeshet, people will say that the Kiddushin were conditioned. So the true marriage of Aharon is with Leah. People will say that Baruch divorced Leah and she further married Aharon

  5. ואי משום אחות אשה תנאה הוה לו בקדושי ראשונה ולא נתקיים

  6. ואי הדרא אשת גיסו לבעלה אמרי אינשי מותר להחזיר גרושתו משניסת הלכך הוא פוסל על ידי אחרים והואיל ואהנו מעשיו פוסל נמי ע"י עצמו Leah cannot go back to Baruch because people will say he returned his divorced after she divorced from a second marriage and that's prohibited

  7. ולתנא קמא טעמא דהניסת בעד אחד אסורה לחזור לאו משום שמא יאמרו זה מחזיר גרושתו משנשאת אלא משום דקנסוה רבנן משום דלא דייקא שפיר הלכך כל מאן דנסבה פסל לה אקמא: But according to Tana Kama Leah is always prohibited for Baruch because chachamim punished her as if she did cheat her husband bmezid

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