The word Talmud and Gemara is used to refer to the written down Oral Law (written down somewhere between 500CE-1000CE?). What is the English translation of those two words and why were they chosen/used to refer to the Oral Law?

  • Talmud means “study,” and Gemara means “tradition.” The rest should be obvious. – DonielF Apr 3 '19 at 15:05

In the Sefer Hachaim(Brother of the Maharal of Prague) writes that the word גמרא is roshei teivos for 4 malachim which surround a person while he is learning Torah and which protect him. On the Right is Michael on the left is Gavriel in the front is Uriel ,and in the back is Refael.


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  1. גמרא means תלמוד in Aramaic, that's simple - לגמור in Aramaic equals to ללמוד in Hebrew. And Talmud means "learning" - the action/process of "to learn".

  2. The Talmud is just a compendium, it is a book, not the complete teaching - a "handbook of the Oral Law":

    • There are lots of topics completely missing from it and covered by other books. Partially because some topics (and whole Mitzvos) are missing from the underlying Mishna.
    • There are topics not related to the Oral Law - culture, science, language, history, economics and more
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  • לגמור is not an Aramaic infinitive as ללמוד is – Dr. Shmuel Apr 3 '19 at 18:40
  • @Dr.Shmuel there's the blessing לגמור את ההלל to study/recite Hallel. – Double AA Apr 3 '19 at 18:42
  • @DoubleAA I meant that he presented לגמור as the Aramaic infinitive – Dr. Shmuel Apr 3 '19 at 18:43

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