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Shochtim these days are careful not to have even the slightness feeling/Hargasha on their knifes although this is significantly less than a "Pegimah".

Where is their sourse to be careful even for such minute Hargashos?

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Its hard to decipher what you mean as a pegima, so will go on the assumption that you consider a pegima to be a nick big enough to get a fingernail caught. The source for the idea that even a minute amount of a nick(kol shehu) is problematic is from the gemara itself. The gemara in Chullin 17 brings Amoraim who check the knives with the sun ,water, tip of the tongue, and with hair. These tests seemingly check for even the most minute nicks(Kol Shehu). Rav Chisda is the opinion that a nick that a nail gets stuck is an issue.

The Shulchan Aruch 18:2 says that the amount of a pegima is a kol shehu(a tiny nick)[see the Tevuos Shor (6) who seems to be concerned that a small nick may turn into a bigger nick during shechita]. However ,he adds that it has to be big enough to catch a strand of hair. The Ran, Rashba, Ramban, and Rambam are all in agreement regarding a kol shehu(They hold that we don't go like Rav Chisda L'chatchila).(I do believe the Rosh is only concerned about a nail getting caught nothing less). The Bias Yosef explains that anything less then a strand of hair we aren't concerned. However, the Maharshal is machmir for even less than that and holds one should be machmir and check the knife using the sun or water test to catch even smaller nicks. The Ritva notes that the Amoraim who checked with sun, water and so on did so lchatchila ,but would agree that b'deved only a nail pegima is a problem.

The Shach also notes that the Bach is meikel and holds only a fingernail nick is an issue, but the Shach writes that chalilah for people to be lenient ,since the minhag Yisrael is to pasul even a pegima kol shehu. However, we aren't concerned enough for a kol shehu to do a check with the sun or water ,but if it becomes known that there was a pegima kol shehu it is a problem(however, maybe in hefsed merubah there is what to rely on since there are shittos which allow it, tzarich iyun)

The Simla Chadasha(Lmaaseh) 18:2 writes that a kol shehu is an issue but up to a strand of hair. So it would seem that l'chatchila one should be concerned even for less than a strand of hair nick ,and b'deved one can be lenient and use a knife that does not have a strands nick nor a fingernail nick.

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