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The Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Shabbat (siman 243) starts with the laws between a jew and a gentile.

Why does it specifically starts there when it is more likely to discuss the importance of Shabbat at the beginning?

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    Cause the Tur organized it that way? – robev Mar 24 at 0:51
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Because Sim 243 deals with procedures preceding Shabbos, like:

דין המשכיר שדה ומרחץ לעכו"ם ובו ב סעיפים:

Laws of renting his property to a Gentile for Shabbos:

One shouldn’t rent out his bathhouse to a non-Jew [before Shabbos] because the bathhouse is known to be his. The non-Jew will do work with it on Shabbat.

After he deals with that he continues with laws that define the relations with the Gentiles that continue into Shabbos.

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    Cf. Tosfos to Shabbos 2a, who uses this logic to explain why the Mishnayos begin with Hotza’ah, the last of the 39 Melachos. – DonielF Mar 24 at 1:50

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