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From Jewish Time-Zemanim Definitions Netz HaChamah (Sunrise) = When the center of the sun is at a 0.833 degrees depression angle below the horizon ... Shkias Hachamah (Sunset) = When the center of the sun is at a 0.833 degrees depression angle below the horizon The US Naval Observatory define sunrise/sunset as follows (in their FAQ): Many ...


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Once I wrote a program that calculates the halachik times for some specific cities in diaspora. And I was commanded by the R. Refoel Antin to calculate the time when the sun is completely below the horizon as a time of shkiya. Same about the sunrise. It is the time when the sun begins to appear above the horizon. The wiki page about sunrise says: ...


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NOTE: both of these are only partial answers; the 1st may be against the Rashba and the 2nd is disputed First Answer The simplest answer might be that the times of getting up and going to sleep are based on when non-Jews, who are exempt from Shema, wake up (after all, non-Jews do make up the vast majority of the human population). Rishonim (see Tos. 2b) ...


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Qitzur Shulhhan Arukh, Yalqut Yosef (Orahh Hayim 608:2) states (my translation including excerpt from Halakhah.com): צריך לסיים אכילתו ושתייתו מבעוד יום, כי מצוה מן התורה להוסיף מחול על הקודש, וכמו שדרשו חז''ל (יומא פא:) ועניתם את נפשותיכם בתשעה לחודש בערב, יכול משתחשך, תלמוד לומר בתשעה לחודש, הא כיצד מתחיל ומתענה מבעוד יום, מכאן שמוסיפים מחול על הקודש. ...


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Yom Kippur comes in the same time as Shabbos does. If by Shabbos you can go into the eighteen minutes so too by Yom Kippur so as long as you add a little from before shkiah (at least 4 minutes) you can go into the eighteen minutes. See Shulchan Aruch siman 608 seif 1 and Shulchan Aruch Harav there seif 1 -3 about Yom Kippur. Regarding Shabbos see Shulchan ...



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