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Perhaps a discussion which I once had with a famous mathematician (who also was an Orthodox Jew) is related to this question. The question was when to observe Shabbat in Japan. The point is that the DATE (and the day of the week) in Japan depends on where the line of the change of dates is drawn. And this line has been established without any consultation ...


8

In Talmud Bavli Rosh Hashanna 20b, R' Zeira quotes R' Nachman as saying: כ"ד שעי מכסי סיהרא לדידן שית מעתיקא ותמני סרי מחדתא לדידהו שית מחדתא ותמני סרי מעתיקא For 24 hours, the [moon] light is covered: For us [in Babylon] - 6 of the old [month] and 18 of the new [month]; for them [in Jerusalem] - 6 of the new and 18 of the old. (Translation ...


2

I personally asked this question to Rav Avigdor Nebenzahl former Chief Rabbi of the Old City. He told me that one should light a flashlight (one with a filiment in the bulb, not LCD) and may even make a brocha on it. He also said it should be placed in the front pocket of the seat. And after a half hour it may be turned off. He also noted that the lights ...


1

In regards to time bound mitzvos in general Rabbi Menahem Kasher ruled that “The situation on the moon [or Mars] is equivalent to the north and south poles; therefore posit a 24-hour day, with alternating periods of 12 hours day and 12 hours night regardless of the presence or absence of light from the sun”. quoted here. The same would presumably be true ...


3

Pseudo-Rama rules that way in OC 477:1: ויקדים עצמו שגם ההלל יקרא קודם חצות And he should [eat the Afikoman] early enough so that he reads Hallel as well before midnight.



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