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13

Generally (without considering many other factors which may be involved) the closer the latitude is to the poles [i.e. the absolute value of the latitude is greater], the longer the sunset. (see table at this pdf (last page) and this piece of mail for more factors) Therefore: Latitude at NY, NY = 40.7 Latitude at Jerusalem, IL = 31.78 NY, NY is closer to ...


11

You end your fast when it becomes dark, independent of how long you have been already fasting. Source: Igrot Moshe OC 3:96 See also Shevet HaLevi 8:261:2 who argues and says to stop based on you original location's times. It's not clear if he would hold this lechumra as well.


10

There's an article on the subject at Hirhurim, by Rabbi Ari Enkin. He cites two reasons that are given for the 18-minute figure: It's based on a Gemara in Shabbos (35b), where it says that six shofar blasts were blown to announce that Shabbos will be starting soon; the third one is the signal for lighting candles, then "he waits as much time as it takes to ...


10

The following are the earliest times, not necessarily lechatechila; Birchos Hashachar- even in the middle of the night, excepting hanosen lasechvi (machlokes) (if you will return to bed there are other modifications) Korbanos- amud hashachar (if they mention the actual korbanos, otherwise you can say them before that) P'sukei d'zimra- amud hashachar ...


10

There are a few things that are not affected by Shaos Zemaniyos. Waiting time between eating meat and milk - you wait the amount of actual hours your Minhag is. Mazalos are also not affected by Shaos Zemaniyos and the Mazal of Maadim is between 6-7 PM during standard time and between 7-8 PM during daylight time. Please see this link from Medrash Shocher ...


10

The Talmud (Pesachim 54b) states that only for Tisha bAv must we be stringent for Bein Hashemashot. There is an opinion in Rishonim that only regarding the Bein Hashemashot at the beginning of the day is Tisha bAv unique, but all fasts require being stringent at the end because we have to wait until it is certainly night to uproot the current status ...


9

If you follow the "plag distinction", then Mincha can be davened until 1.25 relative-daylight hours before sunset, and Maariv any time after that. If you follow the "sunset distinction", then Mincha can be davened until sunset, and Maariv any time after that. I believe there are those who will allow Mincha until 11.5 or 13.5 minutes post-sunset, if you're ...


9

Theoretically yes (assuming candle lighting is just 18 minutes less than sunset), as here's the formula for sunset time based on date, latitude, and longitude; but it's a doozy!


8

For nighttime, they could use water clocks. [Jastrow (in the introduction to his dictionary, and under s.v. ארפכס) argues that one place in the Midrash (Bereishis Rabbah 4:4) and two in Mishnayos Kelim (14:8 and 30:4) refer to such a device, though most of the commentaries explain it as something like a funnel or a colander.]


8

http://www.chaitables.com/chai_air_eng.php


7

The Rema 426:1 says it must be night when "the moon is shining and (people) benefit from its light". The Mishna Berurah exludes bein hashemashos and equates benefiting from its light with the time that the moonshine is detectable on the land.


7

You will find the info here MyZmanim


7

See this excellent article by the Star-K's Rabbi Heber. In summary, if you're close to the North (or South) Pole and it's dark for days, the opinions are: Minchas Elazar: halachically, night can last for several weeks or months. So don't put on tefilin if it's dark. Tiferes Yisroel: bring along an almanac from your hometown, and follow that. Absent ...


7

This affects when Shabbat and yom tov start and end and when you can perform time-bound mitzvot. There are various opinions (some collected here), so this is something you need to consult your rabbi on. Opinions cited there include: use the times for your home city (if you're visiting); use 6PM; use the point when the sun is at its lowest in the sky. I ...


7

With regards to the earliest you can make the Eruv on Erev Yom Tov (your actual question), The Nitei Gavriel (Laws of Yom Tov II 81:10) says you can even make it the whole day, even in the morning (meaning not the night before). In the footnotes he explains none of the earlier authorities address this issue, but it appears that it is better to wait till ...


7

It refers to "mean noon," as opposed to "solar noon." True solar noon is when the sun crosses the imaginary meridian in the sky between east and west, i.e., when the sun is exactly in the south. The time this occurs varies slightly every day due to a number of factors; the variation is known as the "equation of time." (See here for an excellent explanation ...


7

The MA holds that we split up the 12 hours of a day from Alot HaShachar (the beginning of day) to Tzeit HaKochavim (the end of the day). The Gra holds that the 12 hours are split from sunrise to sunset independent of what is considered day or night. All agree that noon must be when the sun is highest in the sky. (This can be proven from the gemara that says ...


7

I live in Sydney Australia and I can say definitively that yes the custom is to stay up all night and learn on Shavuot night. I have never heard the suggestion that staying up all night is related to the time of sunrise/sunset at that time of year. I have many friends in South Africa and can say that they have the same custom as well. My inclination is that ...


7

Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Laws of Prayer, Chapter 1) outlines the basic obligations of prayer. He writes that originally there was no fixed prayers, only an obligation to pray somewhat every day. Everyone would pray different amounts based on how 'inspired' they were. After the destruction of the Jewish Kingdom by the Babylonians (586 BCE), the Sages of ...


7

The Mishna Berura rules that one should not start mincha if they will not finish Shemoneh Esreh before shkia (sunset), but many rely on Rabenu Tam's time and daven considerably later. I was told by my rav to omit tachanun if davening later than allowed by the M"B. Shachris can technically be davened until chatzos (halachic midday) but it really ought to be ...


7

Rabbi Yosef Avraham Heller, the Rosh Kollel of Crown Heights, Brooklyn and former member of the Beis Din there, wrote a essay explaining the Halachic justification for davening after Chatzos, published in "Kobetz Beis Chayenu" 11 Nissan 5760 pg. 28. The crunch of the explanation is as follows: The Gemora (Brochos 26a) states that, "He may go on praying ...


6

Another issue to be concerned about that I've heard of: If you follow Opinion A in Shalom's answer, then when it's Sunday in Australia, it's Shabbat off the Eastern coast thereof. So, I've heard that there are those who forbid swimming or boating off the Eastern coast of Australia on a Sunday, since as soon as you get in the water, you should be observing ...


6

You sure you want to open up this can of worms? :-) Here's the situation. There is no explicit mention of any such concept in the Torah, Talmud, or adressed by the Rambam, the Rosh, the Tur, or the Shulchan Aruch. The first time this really became an issue when during WWII when yeshiva students (notably those from Mir and Chachmei Lublin) relocated from ...


6

YDK's answer perpetuates the common misconception that it is the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit that causes the latest sunset not to fall on the longest day. But this is not true. The primary cause of the phenomenon is the obliquity of the Earth's axis, that is, the fact that the Earth is tilted with respect to its orbit around the sun. The ellipticity ...


6

Same answer as Gershon, just with more English: "Mincha gedola" (earliest mincha) is 12:30PM assuming 6AM sunrise 6PM sunset. It's the earliest time for Mincha. "Mincha ketana" is 3:30PM on a 6-to-6 day. Theoretically the ideal time to say mincha is mincha ketana or later; however, often schedules work out that it's better to get it in earlier, in which ...


6

Midday or midnight are relatively easy to determine for someone with a little astronomical awareness. When the sun is exactly due south - it's midday. When the constellation ("mazal") that is exactly opposite the sun's position on the ecliptic is due south - it's midnight.


6

See this article (Hebrew pdf) arguing for the "need not wait" position. The Rishonim and Shulchan Aruch never said to wait; when Shulchan Aruch describes the order of prayers for Shavuos, it doesn't say anything about waiting. The note to wait appeared later (and appears in Be'er Heitev OC 494 as "the Achronim have written"), and was not agreed upon by all. ...


6

This is the psak of Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan in the third Biur Halacha on Siman 58. Of course when davening alone, it is still advisable to go to a minyan later to hear all the dvarim shebekdusha that you missed, like kaddish, kedusha, barchu, and keriyat hatorah.


6

The reason why we light candles a few minutes early (18 minutes) is in order to avoid any possibility of starting Shabbat late. Think of it as a train leaving the station. If you're one minute late, you missed it. By the way, though most communities light Shabbat candles 18 minutes before sunset, local custom may vary. For instance in Jerusalem, the custom ...


6

Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igrot Moshe OC 1:168) holds that in general one can have a wedding on the night of 17 Tammuz when necessary, but says in that same teshuva that for sure when the fast is Nidche that you can't have a wedding Saturday night. (I assume all other restrictions follow.)



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