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12

Generally (without considering many other factors which may be involved) the closer the latitude is to the poles [i.e. the absolute value of the latitude is greater], the longer the sunset. (see table at this pdf (last page) and this piece of mail for more factors) Therefore: Latitude at NY, NY = 40.7 Latitude at Jerusalem, IL = 31.78 NY, NY is closer to ...


11

You end your fast when it becomes dark, independent of how long you have been already fasting. Source: Igrot Moshe OC 3:96 See also Shevet HaLevi 8:261:2 who argues and says to stop based on you original location's times. It's not clear if he would hold this lechumra as well.


10

There's an article on the subject at Hirhurim, by Rabbi Ari Enkin. He cites two reasons that are given for the 18-minute figure: It's based on a Gemara in Shabbos (35b), where it says that six shofar blasts were blown to announce that Shabbos will be starting soon; the third one is the signal for lighting candles, then "he waits as much time as it takes to ...


10

The following are the earliest times, not necessarily lechatechila; Birchos Hashachar- even in the middle of the night, excepting hanosen lasechvi (machlokes) (if you will return to bed there are other modifications) Korbanos- amud hashachar (if they mention the actual korbanos, otherwise you can say them before that) P'sukei d'zimra- amud hashachar ...


10

There are a few things that are not affected by Shaos Zemaniyos. Waiting time between eating meat and milk - you wait the amount of actual hours your Minhag is. Mazalos are also not affected by Shaos Zemaniyos and the Mazal of Maadim is between 6-7 PM during standard time and between 7-8 PM during daylight time. Please see this link from Medrash Shocher ...


8

For nighttime, they could use water clocks. [Jastrow (in the introduction to his dictionary, and under s.v. ארפכס) argues that one place in the Midrash (Bereishis Rabbah 4:4) and two in Mishnayos Kelim (14:8 and 30:4) refer to such a device, though most of the commentaries explain it as something like a funnel or a colander.]


8

If you follow the "plag distinction", then Mincha can be davened until 1.25 relative-daylight hours before sunset, and Maariv any time after that. If you follow the "sunset distinction", then Mincha can be davened until sunset, and Maariv any time after that. I believe there are those who will allow Mincha until 11.5 or 13.5 minutes post-sunset, if you're ...


7

See this excellent article by the Star-K's Rabbi Heber. In summary, if you're close to the North (or South) Pole and it's dark for days, the opinions are: Minchas Elazar: halachically, night can last for several weeks or months. So don't put on tefilin if it's dark. Tiferes Yisroel: bring along an almanac from your hometown, and follow that. Absent ...


7

With regards to the earliest you can make the Eruv on Erev Yom Tov (your actual question), The Nitei Gavriel (Laws of Yom Tov II 81:10) says you can even make it the whole day, even in the morning (meaning not the night before). In the footnotes he explains none of the earlier authorities address this issue, but it appears that it is better to wait till ...


7

It refers to "mean noon," as opposed to "solar noon." True solar noon is when the sun crosses the imaginary meridian in the sky between east and west, i.e., when the sun is exactly in the south. The time this occurs varies slightly every day due to a number of factors; the variation is known as the "equation of time." (See here for an excellent explanation ...


7

I live in Sydney Australia and I can say definitively that yes the custom is to stay up all night and learn on Shavuot night. I have never heard the suggestion that staying up all night is related to the time of sunrise/sunset at that time of year. I have many friends in South Africa and can say that they have the same custom as well. My inclination is that ...


7

The Mishna Berura rules that one should not start mincha if they will not finish Shemoneh Esreh before shkia (sunset), but many rely on Rabenu Tam's time and daven considerably later. I was told by my rav to omit tachanun if davening later than allowed by the M"B. Shachris can technically be davened until chatzos (halachic midday) but it really ought to be ...


7

Rabbi Yosef Avraham Heller, the Rosh Kollel of Crown Heights, Brooklyn and former member of the Beis Din there, wrote a essay explaining the Halachic justification for davening after Chatzos, published in "Kobetz Beis Chayenu" 11 Nissan 5760 pg. 28. The crunch of the explanation is as follows: The Gemora (Brochos 26a) states that, "He may go on praying ...


6

Same answer as Gershon, just with more English: "Mincha gedola" (earliest mincha) is 12:30PM assuming 6AM sunrise 6PM sunset. It's the earliest time for Mincha. "Mincha ketana" is 3:30PM on a 6-to-6 day. Theoretically the ideal time to say mincha is mincha ketana or later; however, often schedules work out that it's better to get it in earlier, in which ...


6

YDK's answer perpetuates the common misconception that it is the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit that causes the latest sunset not to fall on the longest day. But this is not true. The primary cause of the phenomenon is the obliquity of the Earth's axis, that is, the fact that the Earth is tilted with respect to its orbit around the sun. The ellipticity ...


6

This affects when Shabbat and yom tov start and end and when you can perform time-bound mitzvot. There are various opinions (some collected here), so this is something you need to consult your rabbi on. Opinions cited there include: use the times for your home city (if you're visiting); use 6PM; use the point when the sun is at its lowest in the sky. I ...


6

See this article (Hebrew pdf) arguing for the "need not wait" position. The Rishonim and Shulchan Aruch never said to wait; when Shulchan Aruch describes the order of prayers for Shavuos, it doesn't say anything about waiting. The note to wait appeared later (and appears in Be'er Heitev OC 494 as "the Achronim have written"), and was not agreed upon by all. ...


6

The MA holds that we split up the 12 hours of a day from Alot HaShachar (the beginning of day) to Tzeit HaKochavim (the end of the day). The Gra holds that the 12 hours are split from sunrise to sunset independent of what is considered day or night. All agree that noon must be when the sun is highest in the sky. (This can be proven from the gemara that says ...


6

This is the psak of Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan in the third Biur Halacha on Siman 58. Of course when davening alone, it is still advisable to go to a minyan later to hear all the dvarim shebekdusha that you missed, like kaddish, kedusha, barchu, and keriyat hatorah.


6

The reason why we light candles a few minutes early (18 minutes) is in order to avoid any possibility of starting Shabbat late. Think of it as a train leaving the station. If you're one minute late, you missed it. By the way, though most communities light Shabbat candles 18 minutes before sunset, local custom may vary. For instance in Jerusalem, the custom ...


6

Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Laws of Prayer, Chapter 1) outlines the basic obligations of prayer. He writes that originally there was no fixed prayers, only an obligation to pray somewhat every day. Everyone would pray different amounts based on how 'inspired' they were. After the destruction of the Jewish Kingdom by the Babylonians (586 BCE), the Sages of ...


6

Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igrot Moshe OC 1:168) holds that in general one can have a wedding on the night of 17 Tammuz when necessary, but says in that same teshuva that for sure when the fast is Nidche that you can't have a wedding Saturday night. (I assume all other restrictions follow.)


5

At least to some, yes, mountains do change what time Shabbos comes in. From Chabad.org: "...Palm Springs has special rules with regard to when Shabbat begins. This is due to the large mountain which is directly west of the city. I've been there for Shabbat myself and I can tell you that it does get darker there earlier than cities nearby. Although ...


5

This question is discussed by Rav Moshe (OC 1:97) The upshot is that, by the strict definition of law, sunset goes by when the sun dips below the horizon and is independent of the viewer. So for those on a mountain, halachic sunset would occur earlier that when they see the sun set. For those in a valley, it would be later. Nightfall is dependent on ...


5

There is an advantage to praying Mincha Gedola (mincha between 6.5 halakhic hours into the day and 9.5) as "Zerizim Makdimim L'Mitzvos" (alacritous ones are early to fulfill commandments). There is also an advantage to praying Mincha Ktana (from 9.5 until the end time (10.75 or 12)), as mincha k'tana more accurately projects the time of the Korban Tamid Shel ...


5

The source for this is Hayom Yom, entry for 22 Nissan. R' Michoel Aharon Seligson, who has written extensively on Hayom Yom, suggests (Kovetz Haoros Ubeurim 936, Acrobat page 216) that this is in order to fit in the two daytime meals needed on this day (the regular Yom Tov meal, and "Moshiach's Seudah"). So the kiddush (with matzah balls or something ...


5

See the fuller question for far more. But for a quick answer on Barrow specifically, here's the Star-K: WINTER: For example, in Barrow located at the northern tip of Alaska, on December 1 the sun does not rise. However, at 1:15 p.m. there is the most sunlight of the day 30 (theoretical chatzos hayom [=noon]). Therefore, one may daven Shachris and ...


5

Again. If living someplace where there is no concept of sunrise/sunset at all, the opinions are: Follow your hometown Follow the last normal place you'd been (in this case, Florida) Follow Jerusalem Follow an artificial 6AM-6PM clock, using whatever timezone you have.


5

http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=49150&st=&pgnum=38 Lchatchila the Eruv should be made on Erev Yom Tov - anytime starting from the night before (Orach Chaim 527:14). According to the Biur Halacha the food used in the eruv should preferably have been baked or cooked on Erev Yom Tov. ...


5

Mishnah Berurah (672:1, and in Beur Halachah ibid. ד"ה לא מאחרים) says that it depends: If you usually daven Maariv before nightfall, then prepare the menorah ahead of time, and light immediately after Maariv (so you don't miss the proper time for lighting). If you usually daven it after nightfall, then it's better to light first and then daven. In the ...



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