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19

There is no archaeological evidence of the Exodus. When you get down to it, it's surprising how little archaeological proof there is of many things which we're pretty sure happened - we have difficulty identifying some entire nations which are described by sober ancient historians; and there are many monarchs who are known only by a single reference in a ...


16

Seder Hadorot tells us that Moshe Rabbeinu was born in the year 2368. It then tells us that G-d spoke to Moshe at the burning bush on the 15th of Nissan in the year 2447. This would mean that Moshe had just turned 79 a little over a month before, on the 7th of Adar. Moshe then goes to talk to Pharoah when he is 79. (Incidentally, the Seder HaDorot brings ...


14

See this article by R' Gil Student. He seems to be very familiar with the relevant literature, and he "believe[s] (with perfect faith) that 600,000 men and their families left Egypt," but it's clear to him that if there's any archaeological evidence of the Exodus, it's not great or conclusive. In sum: Here's the simple truth: The single largest question ...


13

Mechilta (to 14:6) states that Pharaoh emptied out his treasury and disbursed it among his army, to induce them to pursue the Jews (with the promise, too, of dividing all of the spoils equally with them). Presumably, no one had gone to Pharaoh to "borrow" gold and silver. (Indeed, the command (Ex. 11:2) was that the Jews should request "each man from his ...


12

Similar to what @ShmuelBrin said, but on more of a psychological level: As brought by theyeshiva.net, The Maharal of Prague (Gevurot Hashem 61) explains what happened when the Jews left Egypt: The Exodus of Egypt, he suggests, was not merely a political and geographical event, in which slave laborers were allowed to leave a country and forge their own ...


11

You need a more precise translation. Had God not taken us out of Egypt, then we, our children, and grandchildren would have been indebted to Pharaoh. Hebrew me-she-ubad, as used regarding real estate on lien for paying potential debts. Had things worked out for our release in other fashions, we would have still owed Pharaoh one. Only by the dramatic show ...


10

We were at the 49th rung of impurity. We were already idolaters. 4/5 of the Jews didn't want to leave. If we would have waited a little more we would have gotten to the 50th rung which means we would have been too far gone. The Lubavitcher Rebbe explains that is why we had to run out of Egypt. The evil was still strong and we went out only because of ...


9

ב"ה Hope this helps. http://members.bib-arch.org/publication.asp?PubID=BSBA&Volume=29&Issue=5&ArticleID=9 The finding: Reed huts more than 3,000 years old belonging to workers—perhaps slaves—and with the same floor plan as ancient Israelite four-room houses have been identified at Medinet Habu, opposite Luxor in Egypt.1 These reed huts ...


9

I don't think this is the simple answer, but it is nonetheless an interesting answer I heard: normally, prayer should be "just loud enough to hear yourself" -- but with all the frogs croaking, Moshe had to scream!


9

"The tribe of Ephraim miscalculated the time of the deliverance of the children of Israel from Egypt, and left the country thirty years before the appointed time. They were met by a hostile host of Philistines, who offered them battle, in which the Ephraimites lost 300,000 men (according to Pesi?., 180,000; according to Pir?e R. El., 200,000). Their bones ...


8

The maskana (conclusion) of the g'mara in M'gila 10:2 is that "vayhi" is not always a term of pain (though "vayhi bime" is).


7

Your question really comes earlier, for in the plague immediately after the pestilence, we find: וַיְהִי, שְׁחִין אֲבַעְבֻּעֹת, פֹּרֵחַ, בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה "and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast." which implies that the Egyptians had animals on which boils "broke forth". Abarbanel, in his description of the ...


7

Absolutely. That is indeed one of the well-known answers as to how to reconcile these two facts. (I don't recall the original source for this, but an example is here.) This didn't contradict Hashem's original promise to Avraham, because the wording of that promise was deliberately left ambiguous. The verse (Gen. 15:13) states: .יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי גֵר ...


7

According to the simple meaning of the verses, there must have been at least three: the one whom Yosef served as vizier, the one who started the oppression ("a new king arose," Ex. 1:8) and who died (ibid. 2:23), and the one whom Moshe confronted. However, we find opinions in the Gemara and Midrash (cited in Rashi to both of these verses) that take these ...


7

I suggest that the purpose of the wind was so that people who chose to doubt the miraculous nature of the splitting had something with which to rationalize it.


7

My favorite commentator when it comes to understanding the differences of meanings between words (that may seem like synonyms) is the Malbim. He has some wonderful and minute distinctions between such pairs, and he holds to them throughout his commentary on the Tanach. These small differences can open a wide world of new understandings. Luckily, he does ...


7

I collected a few links that discuss this question, with several different suggestions for an answer. For example: The Rosh says that only those who did not believe in the Exodus died in the plague of darkness. The Chatam Sofer says that they were kept alive so that the miracle of the ground opening up will be done especially for them. See more in the links ...


6

In the early 19th Century a papyrus, dating from the end of the Middle Kingdom, was found in Egypt. It was taken to the Leiden Museum in Holland and interpreted by A.H. Gardiner in 1909. The complete papyrus can be found in the book Admonitions of an Egyptian from a heiratic papyrus in Leiden. The papyrus describes violent upheavals in Egypt, ...


6

On a more literal level, there's the idea (developed in Kuzari 1:11ff; also discussed by the commentaries to Exodus 20:2 and Rabbeinu Bechayei to Deut. 5:15; and in many other places) that the Exodus - which the entire Jewish people experienced, and in which G-d manipulated and subverted nature as He pleased - serves as proof that G-d originally created that ...


6

The Bavli, Sota 13, says (if I understand it correctly):Come, see how beloved commands were to Moshe rabenu, for all the Jews were busy with spoils and he was busy with commands [specifically, filling the promise of taking Yosef's bones, see the beginning of B'shalach —msh210], as it says "a wisehearted person will take commands...".And how did Moshe rabenu ...


6

Moshe Rabbenu already had complete faith in Gd. It was up to Klal Yisroel to show their faith.


6

The question is dealt with here A brief summary of the article: Why is it difficult to “tear” the Red Sea ? A medrash says that Moshe who saw all the plagues of Egypt, asked Hashem, You have set a border to the sea and You have sworn never to tear it up” The Maharal explains tearing the Red Sea breaks all the rules of natural resources....


6

To first clarify, even though lying is usually frowned upon, I'm pretty sure that, at least ethically speaking, there's no reason to frown upon lying to Pharaoh in this situation if it was necessary to save the Jews. The question being dealt with here is why was this deception necessary - couldn't God have saved them without the lie? Thanks to this shiur, I'...


5

Exodus 9:3 (emphasis mine): behold, the hand of the Lord will be upon your livestock that is in the field, upon the horses, upon the donkeys, upon the camels, upon the cattle, and upon the sheep, a very severe pestilence. This limits the scope of the plague to the animals in the field. Hence, any animal brought inside was not afflicted. So when Verse 9:...


5

An alternate view (which I hadn't previously heard of) is mentioned in Hebrew Wikipedia - that Goshen is Faiyum, southwest of Cairo (which is also famous in Jewish history for another reason - it was the birthplace of R' Saadiah Gaon). Which one is the real Goshen probably would depend on where in known Egyptian history the story of Yosef is placed. Most ...


5

A couple of the classical commentators address this as well. Ibn Ezra writes that Moshe, on his own initiative, had given Pharaoh the option when the plague should be gone (8:5-6) - without first consulting Hashem whether this was the right thing to do, or whether the stated deadline was acceptable to Him. Now he was concerned that Hashem might not approve ...


5

R. Schneur Zalman of Liadi (in Shaar HaYichud VehaEmunah, ch. 2) says: שהוליך ה׳ את הים ברוח קדים עזה כל הלילה ויבקעו המים, ונצבו כמו נד וכחומה. ואילו הפסיק ה׳ את הרוח, כרגע היו המים חוזרים ונגרים במורד כדרכם וטבעם, ולא קמו כחומה, בלי ספק "For then, G‑d drove back the sea by a strong east wind all the night, and the waters were split and not merely ...


5

I Googled it and came up with this page (see top left). It says to look at Zohar Chadash Yisro 31a. In the Zohar, it is referred to as ארבעים ותשע חילי דמסאבותא


5

As mentioned in your link, Targum pseudo-Jonathan identifies them in that verse saying: וקרא לחוד פרעה לחכימיא ולחרשיא ועבדו לחוד הינון יניס וימבריס חרשין דבמצרים בלחשי קוסמיהון היכדין:‏ And Pharoh called to the wise-men and the magicians, and they -- Yannis and Yambris, the magicians of Egypt -- did with their magic thus.


5

Aside from DoubleAA's answer in which he quotes Targum Yonasan, the gemara (Menachos 85a) refers to them as Yochana and Mamrei.



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