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7

As Gesenius writes in his Hebrew Grammar: (b) The original ־ַת‎ is regularly retained as the feminine termination in the construct state sing. of those nouns which in the absolute state end in ־ָה‎, e.g. מַלְכָּה‎ queen, מַלְכַּת שְׁבָא‎ the queen of Sheba. But the feminine endings ־֫ ־ֶת‎, ־֫ ־ַת‎, and also the plural ־וֹת‎, remain unchanged in the ...


6

How about "ben torah"? (See e.g. here, here, and here.) You could also try "baal middos".


4

Both Rav Hirsch and the Netziv point out the word change and explain that Salma signifies a more dignified form of clothing. Rav Hirsch connected it to Tzelem as in Tzelem Elokim. Whereas Simla is simply clothing to cover ones nakedness.


4

These different terms describing tefillin are not all on the same "plane" so to speak. In other words, they describe different aspects of the tefillin. In one plane is the spectrum of peshutim, dakot, gasot. These words describe the batim (leather boxes) of the tefillin. Tefillin peshutim are the lowest quality and least expensive. They are composed of ...


4

Many of your point are only relevant to Modern Hebrew, which is a distinct language from Biblical Hebrew, only the latter being a holy language. In fact, many orthodox Jews distance themselves from Modern Hebrew (to the point of prohibiting its use in their synagogues) because of what is deemed to be its inherent un-holiness. Nevertheless, let me address ...


3

The Hebrew language is considered the holy tongue, but not because it is ascetically pleasing from a grammarian's view point. It is holy because holy people use it to convey holy ideas, and it is ill suited (in its original incarnation) for speaking on profane matters. The Rambam writes: I have also a reason and cause for calling our language the holy ...


3

In this context, most (if not all) commentators explain that kohanim means high-ranking, respected, people. One useful tool is comparing psukim from these times with their equivalents in Divrei Hayamim, which in this case (Divrei Hayamim 1, 18, 17) quotes the passuk almost word for word (translation from here): וּבְנֵי-דָוִיד הָרִאשֹׁנִים, לְיַד ...


3

Historically, the ideal Jew in most of Eastern Europe was praise as an "ehrlicher Yid". Unlike the modern favorite of "frum", the implications of ehrlich revolve more around those mitzvos related to honesty, kindness, in addition to meaning observant as a whole. “Frum” descends from the German “fromm“, meaning pious or devout. In pre-war Yiddish, usage ...


3

It's the first word of Genesis 2:1. Genesis 2:1–3 is recited a few times a week in the liturgy, perhaps most notably toward the end of the evening synagogue services on Friday nights: many congregations recite the passage aloud and in unison on that occasion. If you saw a reference to "Va'yechulu", it likely meant that passage and may well have meant ...


3

Tefillin are divided into different categories based on the quality of the leather boxes Tfilin crafted from two separate pieces of leather (which are then glued together) are known as tfilin peshutim, the simplest tfilin. Hasofer says they generally last only three to five years, after which the pieces begin to separate and they lose their required square ...


2

The Malbim says that Bnei Yisrael were too afraid to advance toward Hashem. They were not prepared enough to be able to hear Hashem directly, so they could not do it by themselves. Therefore, the verse stresses that they stayed in the camp; and Moses needed to bring them to Hashem himself, as it continues with "ויוצא משה את העם לקראת האלהים". ‏... ...


2

The root (בער) as listed in Jastrow has several different meanings depending on the context. For example, (בער) meaning to burn is found in Shemot Rabbah 2:5 which says, "since the bush burned..." http://www.sefaria.org/Shemot_Rabbah.2.5/he/Daat_Shemot_Rabbah?qh=הסנה%2Bבוער&lang=he&layout=lines&sidebarLang=all And in Bamidbar Rabbah, parshat ...


1

According to milon.co.il, the word דגה means כלל הדגים which I would translate as the collective term "all fish" kind of like how the word "humanity" means "all humans". So, for example וְהַדָּגָה אֲשֶׁר-בַּיְאֹר תָּמוּת means "the entirety of fish-hood in the river will die." An example of another pair of words in Hebrew which exhibit a similar ...


1

After lots of searching, I finally found a paper on this topic: "The Two Forms of First Person Singular Pronoun in Biblical Hebrew: Redundancy or Expressive Contrast?" by E. J. Revell, Journal of Semitic Studies 40 (1995), pp. 199–207. The crux of Revell's argument is that "אני is typically used by status-marked human speakers, אנכי by others." He notes ...


1

As a fluent Yiddish speaker, I feel obliged to answer this question. The meaning of the word "kittel" (Yid: קיטל) is "little robe" in the German dialect of Yiddish. :) Hope this helps.


1

R. Avraham b. haRambam writes in the beginnining of Va'Eirah (7:8): לא ידעתי [מה החילוק] בין ויאמר לוידבר ולמה אמר פעם ויאמר ופעם וידבר ואם רק הוא מכם רק "I do not know what's the difference between VaYomer and VaYedaber, and why sometimes the Torah uses one, and sometimes the other, and if it seems meaningless, it's your shortcoming."



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