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1

See the introduction to the Jerusalem Bible by Koren Publishers. They go to great lengths to explain how they crafted a font so as to solve the issue you raise: they differentiate between the Cholem and the Shin/Sin dots by height and weight so that you can see both - and not confuse them. So, as DoubleAA already commented, what you are referring to is ...


6

The word is אֵת. When the word is "joined" with the next word with a makaf "־" then they become treated as one long word, and there is no longer an accent on that syllable. Unaccented closed syllables (unlike accented closed syllables) take short vowels, so the vowel shifts to its shorter counterpart: tzere -> segol. You can also see this same phenomenon in ...


12

When the word stands on its own, with its own trup-mark, it's אֵת, with a tzeireh. When it's attached to the next word with a dash and therefore does not have its own trup-mark, it's אֶת, with a segol. I think I learned this in high school; unfortunately, I don't know a more precise source. I'm not sure what would be the underlying reason behind some ...



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