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7

The form 'כְּתוּבָה' certainly exists, as you state; it is the passive participle of the root כתב, and means "written", as in: "נבואתו כתובה על הקיר" = "his prophecy is written on the wall". However, this is not the same as the noun which designates a "marriage contract". Although there are exceptions, for the most part nouns with specific meanings are not ...


6

I linked in the comments to the question to an article by Dan Rabinowitz published by Hakirah journal regarding Jewish sources pertaining to the origin of the nekudos. [Note that although the taamim of the Tanach are not mentioned throughout the article, it seems implicit in most of the sources (and in the main source, actually explicit) that the same ...


5

My fellow yeshiva bachur studied Aramaic intensely, and could hold a fluent conversation (if he had anybody to speak with). He said it should be אוֹרִייַתָא.


4

The Babylonian system derives its name from its place of origin, but it was also found well out of Babylon. In Yemen, for instance, manuscripts following this system have been used up to this day. The earliest manuscripts using this system are a Geniza fragment from Cairo of the beginning of the tenth century and a complete manuscript of the ...


4

Phonetic Background Recall that we can split words up into syllables, e.g. English "pronounciation" = "pro-nun-ci-a-tion". As is described in that Wikipedia article, an "open syllable" is a syllable which ends in a vowel and a closed syllable is one that ends in a consonant, e.g. in "pronunciation" the open syllables are "pro", "ci" and "a", while the ...


4

The HaEmek Dovor explains unexpected dageshim as an intensification of the meaning. Thus, in Gen 43:26 he says that: the dagesh in the Aleph indicates the strength of the bringing, to show that each one tried to present the gift with their own hand rather than have one or two of the brothers bring it on behalf of all of them. This was in order to show ...


4

You are correct in that a I-guttural (a peh-gronit verb) usually takes a composite shewa (although be mindful of the fact that it's not always with patach), but the major exception to this is where it appears in a closed syllable, after the lamed of the infinite construct, in which it often (although not always) takes a regular shewa. So, for example, ...


3

It's very common in some of the manuscripts - for example, the codex of the Prophets from the Qaraite synagogue in Cairo, which was written by Moshe ben Asher. There, it features in every the occasional consonantal aleph (and might therefore be understood to be a mappiq). This is generally considered to have been a feature of the Palestinian vocalisation ...


3

A little phonetics background is needed to answer this question. Phoneticians usually transcribe sounds in languages using a set of symbols known as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Phonetic transcriptions in the IPA are written in between square brackets [], so for example the word "beds" is transcribed in IPA as [bɛdz]. As you can see from the ...


3

The word would appear to be a semi-colloquial pluralization of the word טהרה, appearing in the Torah as a nominal infinitive. Exclusively in the singular, its nikud is טָהֳרָה. (By "semi-colloquial" I mean that a word like that a word like that is already somewhat abstract and shouldn't need to be pluralized to refer to the class of activities that pertains ...


2

It's generally accepted that traditional pronunciation schemes for Hebrew are always halachically acceptable. The basic mekor for this is that the Gemara (e.g. Megillah 24b, brought down by the Shulchan Aruch) implies that there are halachic problems with pronouncing ayin as aleph. Numerous mefarshim qualify that this does not apply in a place where the ...


2

It should not have a dagesh. Throughout Tanach, most every mem with a sh'va as the first letter of present-tense verb in piel or pual has no dagesh after a he hay'dia according to the m'sora (and the same is usually true of any mem with a sh'va), and I have no reason to believe that that changed in later Hebrew (certainly not by the time "Modim" was ...


2

All Sephardic/Mizrahi (but not Yemenite) reading traditions distinguish qames qatan (pronounced as you point out approximately "o") from qames gadhol (pronounced as you point out approximately "a"). Most Ashkenazim, along with Yemenites, pronounce both approximately as "aw" in claw, draw. Some Ashkenazim pronounce qames gadhol as "aw" and qames qatan as ...


2

Rashi on Berachot 62A says that people used to use hand signs to indicate the proper vocalization of the words as the Torah was read. I have heard from several different people, but not seen in writing, that the nekudot and taamim that are printed today are attempts to pictographically represent these hand gestures. This would explain why earlier texts such ...


2

"Chajes" is not the English version of the name, but the German version, which would point to a pronunciation of "חַיֶס". In Hebrew, though, there's a vav, which it seems was pronounced as a cholam. But I can't find any explicit evidence for this. If you look at his Iggeres Bikores republished in 1853 by Jacob Brull, you'll see the German version "Chajes" ...


2

I have usually heard the name pronounced as stated in the Wikipedia article, especially in academic settings. Whenever I hear the pronunciation like 'khee-us' I assume that it's because people feel uncomfortable giving an achron a last name that can mean 'animals'. A few people have speculated over the origin and meaning of the name. One source that I can ...


2

Yod, like most other letters, can only get a dot in it called a "dagesh chazak." This indicates that the affected consonant should be geminated, or doubled the way you would double, e.g. the 'b' sound in "subbasement." So, for the word in your example, שִיֵּץ, you would say "shiy-yatz" rather than "shiyatz," and your name would be pronounced "Chay-ya" ...


1

From Joshua Jacobson's Chanting the Hebrew Bible: R Breuer (Ta'amey HaMiqra) and Ben-Asher (Sefer Dikdukei HaTe'amim) say that it is nach if and only if there is no meteg, except Ben-Asher adds that if a makef follows (eg. Song of Songs 8:14), it is still nach. Minchat Shai, on the other hand, says that it is always nach, with or without a meteg. Jacobson ...


1

Hebrew words never end in a short vowel (including patach). There are plenty of words ending with a patach and then a chet, such as פֶּסַח, פֵּתַח, שָׁמַע, and גָּבַהּ.


1

You have to use alt-codes. Here is a PDF chart. Be sure to read the instructions on the bottom of it. If you do any significant amount of work with this, I recommend a keyboard macro program to save a lot of aggravation.


1

For many words in Tanakh that begin with he hayedia followed by mem-shewa, even though the mem lacks daghesh, the Masora prescribes shewa naʿ (mobile shewa), indicated by gaʿya on the preceding pathah. We should not at all assume that the words of the siddur were pronounced as they were in the Tanakh. The language (and pronunciation) of Hazal often ...



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