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7

Trop marks are traditionally always placed on the accented syllable EXCEPT Yetiv and Telisha Gedola which are always on the first letter, and Telisha Ketana, Pashta, Zarka, and Segol which are always on the last letter. In those words, you have to just know where the accent goes. (Many printers nowadays print a second trop mark on the accented syllable in ...


6

In Ashkenazi cantillation, the demarcation of the end of a recitation unit is technically no different than the end of any other verse vis a vis the cantillation marks themselves. There is therefore no strict requirement for them to be pronounced differently. However, it is a widespread custom that the concluding words of a recitation unit (whether a ...


5

No, he didn't discover it. Wickes lived 1817-1903 with his seminal works on cantillation being published in the 1880s. Plenty of Jewish works on cantillation exist before that, such as Mishpetei Taamim, 1808, R Wolf Heidenheim, back to works by Ben Asher and Yehuda Ibn Bilam around 1000 years ago. Rabbeinu Tam wrote a long cryptic poem about the rules of ...


5

I don't have enough rep to comment above, but I'm the creator of quantifiedcantillation.nl, and since I saw a few referrals from this question I thought I'd stop by. It looks like my site should be able to answer all of your questions. (Thanks, @Double-AA!) For the etnakhta question, if you go to the settings (small cog icon in the lower left) you can limit ...


5

I have used and found excellent the book Chanting the Hebrew Bible by Joshua Jacobson. It comprises a background/history of the subject, a detailed grammatical treatment (one-by-one introducing the disjunctive te'amim and their function; introducing the relevant conjunctive te'amim with each disjunctive; diagrammatical syntax trees; examples; exercises), a ...


4

If you're willing to trade voice quality for a larger set of trop systems, take a look at Trope Trainer. It has a mechanical voice (not a recorded human voice) that you can use to hear any portion in any of a couple dozen trop systems. (You can also change the voice's pitch and speed to match your own voice, for people who are using this software to ...


4

That word is always pronounced with emphasis on the second-to-last syllable (mil'el) and is past tense. (If it had a prefixed vav and were mil'ra (emphasis on the last syllable), it'd be future tense. Maybe that's what you're thinking of.) The segol cantillation mark is always written on the last letter. Most copies of Chumash follow the standard practice ...


4

The word גשם occurs at an etnachta only in Prov 25:23, where it has a kamatz. It occurs at a sof pasuk four times (1 Kings 18:41, 18:44, Zech 14:17, Eccl 12:2), each time with a kamatz. All occurrences of גשם on lesser disjunctives are with a segol (Gen 7:12, etc.).


3

The issue is not just whether something is or is not a prayer, but also whether it is a דבר שבקדושה. The Beit Yosef brings (OC 565:5) in the name of Rashba that an individual (not in a minyan) shouldn't say the 13 Attributes in the context of בקשת רחמים (requesting mercy), since that is a דבר שבקדושה (learned from the gemara on Rosh Hashanah 17b). However, ...


3

Pausal forms don't always come on Etnachta or Silluk, though those are good examples of where a strong pause might be. Sometimes they come on second order disjunctives, like Zakef (Genesis 11:3, Ruth 4:18,22) or Tipcha (Genesis 23:11, Shemot 33:14) or Shalshelet (Vayikra 8:23). Here this is especially reasonable as the verse is such that the Tipcha on פסח ...


3

There is no one answer for this question. Because there seems to have been three distinct developments for the Cantillation: Ashkenazi, Old Mizrahi, and Modern Sephardi. The Ashkenazim are noted as being the first to develop musical motifs for all of the cantillation symbols. This makes the most sense since Europe was very focused on writing down music, and ...


3

The Rama (OC 142:1) rules that a mistake which changes the meaning must be corrected, while [mere] changes to the vowels or trop should [post-facto] only be complained about. The Mishna Berura there clarifies that the Rama is using vowels and trop as examples of things which don't change the meaning because they usually don't, but if they did then they ...


2

According to Idehlson the Sephardim/Mizrahim of older times did not have melodies for all of the te'amim. This could mean that as time went on the different communities started mixing and bringing additional melodies to each other. Source: Idehlson's Thesaurus of Oriental Hebrew Melodies Volume 2


2

This is only a partial answer (in that I don't know the original sources) but such a custom is mentioned in Matteh Efraim 584:18 (by R. Efraim Zalman Margolios, 1762-1828 Brody, Ukraine) and the Aruch Hashulchan 584:3 (R. Yechiel Michel Epstein, 1829-1908 Belarus). I assume that the reasoning is the same why we would change the tune for tefillah: to reflect ...


2

Actually, tipcha is a bigger break than tevir, and even bigger than revii (even though many people don't read it that way). The side of the Tikkun Simanim points out places where it makes a difference to the meaning. One major case is in Reeh 12:2. A more recent place, where it's simpler to see the meaning although I don't think the Simanim says anything ...


1

The one you've probably seen before is Genesis 28:9. The others are scattered in more obscure parts of Nakh: Samuel 1:14:3 Samuel 1:14:47 Samuel 2:13:32 Kings 2:18:17 Isaiah 36:2 Jeremiah 4:19 Jeremiah 38:11 Jeremiah 40:11 Ezekiel 9:2 Haggai 2:12 Chronicles 2:26:15. It also happens twice before a Pazeir: Daniyel 3:2 Nehemiah 8:7.


1

As there hasn't been a lot of answers for Sephardi Nusach, i will post all the resources i have found for Sephardi sources: Egyptian Nusach: Ahaba, Shaarei Shalom, Orah Saddiqim, Karaites.org The Ahaba website is from an Egyptian synagogue in New York. There are many recordings and videos here. Many. There are several years' worth of Seder Tawhid, an ...


1

AA is right, I checked in with two Chabad rabbis, it's a typo. As another Jew once said: Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar ;-)


1

The rules are complicated, but three of the more obvious explanations are (a) the syllable preceding the tone is open; (b) the word is compound, and/or (c) elongated words will require extra cantillation for the purposes of fuller melody. Reference: Wickes, William (1887). Two Treatises on the Accentuation of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, ...


1

R Menachem Di Lonzano writes in his Derekh Chayim 108b that the Tipcha is on "Ani" so as to not sound like "I am God, your god, [and not that other god who is also your god]". He concludes: ולכן בכל אני ה' אלהיכם יש טרחא במלת אני לבד כשיבא מלת כי בתביר קודם לה לפי שאי אפשר לטרחא לבא אחר תביר אם לא במאריך באמצע.‏ And therefore in all "Ani Hashem ...


1

Nehama Leibowitz, in the first volume of New Studies in Shemot (pp. 306-7), discusses the distinction between two possible syntactic structures of the first three words in Exodus 20:2. (a) אנכי ה׳        אלהיך, (b) אנכי        ה׳ אלהיך. She cites Ibn Ezra and Shadal who discuss the two readings (...



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