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16

1) Because it is the first word on the pasuk and deserved a zakef. At this distance from the etnachta, this would be a segolta. But a segolta needs a preceding zarka, and this is the first word. And so it becomes a shalshelet. 2) Rav Chaim Kanievsky, in Taama deKra, cites a different sefer, which gives a consistent explanation of shalshelet as extension. ...


13

Four times in Chumash: ויתמהמה (Vayeira, Gen. 19:16) ויאמר (Chayei Sarah, Gen. 24:12) וימאן (Vayeishev, Gen. 39:8) וישחט (Tzav, Lev. 8:23) and three times in the rest of Tanach (excluding Tehillim, Mishlei, and Iyov, which use a different system of trop): ונבהלו (Is. 13:8) ויאמר (Amos 1:2) ואמר-לה (Ezra 5:15)


12

I would recommend William Wickes' treatise on the Taamei Emet. You are describing a revia mugrash, as distinct from a revia gadol or revia katon. It is indeed a disjunctive accent: To really understand its function, you should familiarize yourself with Wickes' description of the continuous dichotomy. But the pasuk is first divided at the etnachta (or ...


11

All three books (Iyov Mishlei and Tehillim) are written in a complex poetic style. The separate trop represents the shift from prose to poetry and may have been sung in a more songful manner than the regular prose trop. A proof to this distinction lies in Iyov, whose first, second and final chapters are written in prose and have regular trop. EDIT: The ...


9

The alternation you are speaking of is between a zakef gadol (on the many, short names) and a 'pashta'-zakef katon (on somewhat longer words). Both of these are really a zakef. When the zakef comes on the first word of a clause, or of a pasuk, as it does here, then there is no place for the servus. This is where we typically see a zakef gadol version of the ...


8

Based on observations in a Sepharadic environment: I have signed ta'amim for several readers using systems they taught me. They all seem to be based around the same signs, even if there are nuances between various methods. They are more or less imitations of the ta'am symbol, using your hand against the inside edge of the Sefer Torah case (upright, of ...


6

I linked in the comments to the question to an article by Dan Rabinowitz published by Hakirah journal regarding Jewish sources pertaining to the origin of the nekudos. [Note that although the taamim of the Tanach are not mentioned throughout the article, it seems implicit in most of the sources (and in the main source, actually explicit) that the same ...


6

Asher Laufer (אשר לאופר) wrote a paper "תנועות ידיים וראש בשעת קריאת התורה" on this subject. He describes (in my own very loose translation and sometimes condensation): In Rabat, Morocco, the Torah reader himself moved his right hand or his head when reading words with mafsik (pausal) cantillation. That is, the motions constituted an "accompaniment": ...


6

That pasuk is not used in my experience as an example of trop. However, in the book An'im Zemorot by Elli Schorr he gives a list of the different Ta'amim using common examples of their occurrence. I know that when I first read this I recognized which psukim 90% of the examples were from just based on the trop from the one word. Maybe other ba'alei kriya ...


6

Although the Gra is famous for saying that there is remez (symbolism) behind all the ta'amim (trope) in the Torah, simply speaking the ta'amim we use are purely grammatical. There are several levels of "stopper" ta'amim that indicate a pause in the text, i.e. that this word is not connected to the next. Grammatically speaking, zakef gadol and ...


5

Indeed, in a number of places here in Israel, Tehillim are read publicly on a daily basis from Tehillim scrolls written on parchment. According to many authorities, there is also a special bracha that is to be recited prior to reading material from Ketuvim out of a parchment scroll: ברוך אתה ה' א-להינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וציונו לקרוא בכתבי הקודש ...


5

Many sephardim still have a tradition as to the melody of the ta'amei emet. You can buy recordings of the Moroccan tradition from http://www.tht.co.il/default.asp. If you've visited sepharadi synagogues before, you may recognize the melody -- we use it for Kabbalat Shabbat. As for the question of why they have ta'amim: the books of the Tanach need some sort ...


5

I'm sure someone has written on this, but I think many people's details of shnayim mikra aren't well defined. Sure, why not use the aliyah-ending notes? There are two reasons suggested for Shnayim Mikra: Prepping yourself to read the Torah publicly this week if needed. A yearly system of studying the Torah If we apply only reason #1 to all its ...


5

Based in my Mesora - which I got from my father: The special tune starts before the Shira. It is already used for Posuk 14:29 - the Posuk before וַיּוֹשַׁע וְהַמַּיִם לָהֶם חֹמָה, מִימִינָם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָם Note: this phrases is already mentioned in Pasuk 22 - but there it is sung normally. Then comes the actual Shira, where each Posuk with Hashem's name ...


4

I am pretty sure that this depends on which minhag you hold to. The question is easiest answered if you hold a standard Ashkenazi minhag, as you can hear it read by an expert Hazzan here. A friend who trained to be a Hazan at YU told me that this was a resource his instructors gave him.


4

Really, if we divided the verses subject-wise, 1-11 would make the best fit. On Shabbos, the problem is verse 12: אֵיכָה אֶשָּׂא, לְבַדִּי, טָרְחֲכֶם וּמַשַּׂאֲכֶם, וְרִיבְכֶם How can I myself alone bear your cumbrance, and your burden, and your strife? It's an incredibly mournful verse, read in the Lamentations tune (Eicha trop). As a rule, ...


4

Presumably this is a cue to the oleh that the aliyah is over, and he should begin reciting the blessing. If the kore were to simply stop reading, there would be a few seconds of awkward silence until the oleh is sure that the aliyah is over. Also, a kore who pauses for whatever reason would run the risk of having the oleh start the blessing too early.


4

I cannot speak (entirely) about how rare it is. Nor can I speak about any midrashic analysis of it. However, I can address what causes it. The pashta is a pausal trup sign that splits in half a clause that ends in zakef. Where two occur, first the first one divides, then the second one divides. This division usually occurs on the basis of syntax, such as ...


4

The Trope Trainer software (published by Kinnor, sometimes discounted at Davka) includes computer-generated recordings of everything in a couple dozen different cantillation systems. You can sometimes find recordings of passages on the net but unless the recording uses the system you're familiar with, this doesn't necessarily help. Some tikkunim include ...


4

This is the ways Sefer Hanigunnim (Chabad) says it is supposed to sound: Trop for normal laining: http://www.770live.com/En770/nigunim/nigunPlay.asp?nigunId=Dovid_Hurwitz/172.rm&gif=172 Trop for Megillas Ester: http://www.770live.com/En770/nigunim/nigunPlay.asp?nigunId=Dovid_Hurwitz/175.rm&gif=175


3

According to Rabbi Joseph Ibn Caspi (in his commentary to Bereishis 19:16), the Shalsheles note conveys a state of uncertainty and indecision. (see here) Rabbi Yossi Jacobson has an online lecture where he analyzes the 3 times in in Bereshit where Lot, Eliezer and Yosef are uncertain (as indicated by the Shalshelet note), and then discusses the 4th time in ...


3

If you're calling it "trei taamei", you are likely Sephardic, in which case, you can probably find a recording of the taamim (including tre taamei) according to your specific custom at Pizmonim.org. For the standard Ashkenazic custom, the tune given in this video (at 1:07) is the one I and many others I know use. (I wouldn't necessarily trust that video for ...


3

The book שערי נחמה (page נ"ה section ט) says the following verses are the ones which are read in regular (non-sad) trop, according to the custom of the yeshivot (the ashkenazi ones, I assume) in Eretz Yisrael: verse 1 verses 16 to 19 verses 24 to 27 All other verses are read in sad trop.


3

I don't have a source for this, but my own experience with leining and being a corrector for other leiners. But see Rabbi Jeremy Wieder's leining on YUTorah for confirmation of what I say. Note also that my experience is with American and British leining -- other Ashkenazim might have other minhagim. The only time I give the munach a sound all its own is ...


2

The te'amim (trope) symbols are about 1,000 years old and are pretty much universal within the Jewish world. They replaced earlier (and probably less efficient or more confusing) systems of notating the grammatical breakdown of verses. The actual parsing of each verse into clauses and sub-clauses is, of course, a much older oral tradition. The melodies we ...


2

Karnei Farah - according to Minhag Askhenaz - is Pazer, Telisha Ketana and Telisha Gedolah together (meaning one after another). I don't have the source for that though - I heard it from a local Rav and then from a Ba'al Koreh. As for Yerach Ben Yomo, I try to imitate the guy at http://bible.ort.org/books/cant4.asp since my teacher never taught me that ...


2

Mechon-Mamre chooses option #2. Links: Public reading // Private reading. Minchas Shai chooses option #2: http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=14036&st=&pgnum=21 , bottom of first column. Additional discussion here: http://www.ottmall.com/mj_ht_arch/v30/index.html#VEZ and here: ...


2

Rashi on Berachot 62A says that people used to use hand signs to indicate the proper vocalization of the words as the Torah was read. I have heard from several different people, but not seen in writing, that the nekudot and taamim that are printed today are attempts to pictographically represent these hand gestures. This would explain why earlier texts such ...


2

See Israel Yeivin's Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah (trans. and ed. E.J. Revell; Scholars Press: 1980), available here. He discusses the accents in Sifrei Emet from pp264-274. Concerning the revia mugrash (which is how he identifies the accent on the word לצים), he has the following to say (§366, p269-270): Revia mugrash occurs only in the second ...


2

According to Nitei Gavriel, the custom is to sing with the taamei shira. (This seems to be his intention, although the statement is quite vague.) He quotes this from Minhagei Frankfurt as well as Hosafos HaYaavetz. He also lists some of the customs that pertain to which pesukim to apply the tune to, etc.



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