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8

There is a sefer by Efraim Urbach called "Ba'alei HaTosafot" (in Hebrew) that discusses them and analyzes, Masechta by Masechta, who the anonymous authors might be.


6

Wikipedia's article "Tosafot", quoting the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia's: The edited tosafot owe their existence particularly to Samson of Sens and to the following French tosafists of the thirteenth century: (1) Moses of Évreux, (2) Eliezer of Touques, and (3) Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil.


4

Malbim (to Lev. 4:2, sec. 191) argues for your option 1c: there are derashos in Sifra for all three of the cases that Tosafos mentions - being a zav/zavah, pledging erachin and performing semichah - that converts are included. He explains at some length that indeed "bnei Yisrael" includes only born Jews. So mitzvos fall into several categories: Those ...


4

The Yam Shel Sh'lomo is the one who, disagreeing with Tosafos, distinguishes between adults and children playing ball on Yom Tov http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=14086&st=&pgnum=22&hilite=: אלא שחוק של ילדים שלא הגיעו לכלל חיוב הנח The YS"S can arguably be interpreted to refer to children below the age of chinuch. There is a Tosafos ...


3

According to this page, the author is unknown. However, earlier in the book (fn. 2), he says that it was first printed in Livorno 5543, if that helps you.


2

A brief answer, which I'll update with sources, b'ezras Hashem, another time: A large part of it is a question of methodology. Rashi generally takes each piece of Gemara on its own terms and explains it in a way that fits in context; he generally doesn't attempt to compare/contrast it with other places in the Gemara. (In this he is similar to Rambam, who ...


2

http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A4%D7%A1%D7%A7%D7%99_%D7%AA%D7%95%D7%A1%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%AA Per Rabbi Yaakov Emden in his Sefer Mishna Lechem Pesachim Chapter 10 it was authored by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher - the Tur. There are those who attribute it to the Tur's father - the Rosh. The Chida in Shem HaGedolim questions as to what the source is that it was ...


2

there are many different tosafot on each meseches some of the more famous ones are tosafot harosh tosafot ri"d tosafot rabeinu peretz tosafot tuch (most common alongside gemorah ) tosafot harashb"a meshantz tosafot rabbeinu moshe there may be as many as 20 on any given mesechet when the gemorah was published they printed whatever tosafot was available, ...


2

חגיגה כא ע''א, מנחות כב ע''ב זבחים עא ע''א, יומא נו ע''א,נזיר לו ע''ב all have enormous תוספות.



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