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There is a sefer by Efraim Urbach called "Ba'alei HaTosafot" (in Hebrew) that discusses them and analyzes, Masechta by Masechta, who the anonymous authors might be.
Wikipedia's article "Tosafot", quoting the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia's: The edited tosafot owe their existence particularly to Samson of Sens and to the following French tosafists of the thirteenth century: (1) Moses of Évreux, (2) Eliezer of Touques, and (3) Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil.
Malbim (to Lev. 4:2, sec. 191) argues for your option 1c: there are derashos in Sifra for all three of the cases that Tosafos mentions - being a zav/zavah, pledging erachin and performing semichah - that converts are included. He explains at some length that indeed "bnei Yisrael" includes only born Jews. So mitzvos fall into several categories: Those ...
The Yam Shel Sh'lomo is the one who, disagreeing with Tosafos, distinguishes between adults and children playing ball on Yom Tov http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=14086&st=&pgnum=22&hilite=: אלא שחוק של ילדים שלא הגיעו לכלל חיוב הנח The YS"S can arguably be interpreted to refer to children below the age of chinuch. There is a Tosafos ...
According to this page, the author is unknown. However, earlier in the book (fn. 2), he says that it was first printed in Livorno 5543, if that helps you.
A brief answer, which I'll update with sources, b'ezras Hashem, another time: A large part of it is a question of methodology. Rashi generally takes each piece of Gemara on its own terms and explains it in a way that fits in context; he generally doesn't attempt to compare/contrast it with other places in the Gemara. (In this he is similar to Rambam, who ...
http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A4%D7%A1%D7%A7%D7%99_%D7%AA%D7%95%D7%A1%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%AA Per Rabbi Yaakov Emden in his Sefer Mishna Lechem Pesachim Chapter 10 it was authored by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher - the Tur. There are those who attribute it to the Tur's father - the Rosh. The Chida in Shem HaGedolim questions as to what the source is that it was ...
there are many different tosafot on each meseches some of the more famous ones are tosafot harosh tosafot ri"d tosafot rabeinu peretz tosafot tuch (most common alongside gemorah ) tosafot harashb"a meshantz tosafot rabbeinu moshe there may be as many as 20 on any given mesechet when the gemorah was published they printed whatever tosafot was available, ...
חגיגה כא ע''א, מנחות כב ע''ב זבחים עא ע''א, יומא נו ע''א,נזיר לו ע''ב all have enormous תוספות.
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