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4

That is not the early Israelite understanding of cosmology, it is Babylonian cosmology. Tannaim (eg R' Eliezer on Bava Basra 25a) and the earlier Babylonian amoraim mapped the Torah to it, much the way rabbis today talk about Relativity and QM in the Torah. The Babylonians and Persians had much much more accurate observations than the Greeks, so this was ...


4

There are different opinions regarding the nature of the rakia. One opinion is that of R. Avraham Ibn Ezra who writes in his commentary to Genesis (1:6) (Shitta acheret) as follows: והנכון בעיני, כי הארץ היתה מכוסה במים, והרוח יבש המים מעל הארץ כדרך ויעבר א-להים רוח על הארץ וישכו המים (ברא' ח, א) אז נראה. ובעבור האור היה הרקיע. והוא האויר ההוה על הארץ ...


0

Well, I have a semi-personal connection with Rabbi Chaim Richman of the Temple Institute in Jerusalem, and when he was down here in my town visiting, I asked him the same question. Basically, he told me that when Rabbi Gamliel II says a Torah scroll can be written in Greek, it does not mean that a Torah written in Greek is kosher for use in shul, public ...


3

Rabbi Eliyahu Munk, in his book עולם התפילות, gives several reasons for this (which we say every day, not only on Shabbat): This is the end of the teffilah, after we already reached the hights during Shma Yisrael and Amida, and we are slowly descending and equipping ourselves towards our day. Therefore we need the explanation of the targum for example that ...


1

See the set I grew up with on Amazon and WorldCat. It is linear: each line of Hebrew has its translation near it. As far as I recall (though it's been a few years), it has a clear font (with Rashi in block, not "Rashi", script) and nice spacing between the lines, but a more opaque English.


4

You can get it all online here or buy this ArtScroll set. You can also go old school and get the JPS set (that's the link for Devarim).


3

Any Jewish book store near where you live or online. Judaica World, Judaica Press, Koren, ArtScroll, World of Judaica, Eichlers, and even Amazon will have this. You can even go online and find it for free at ... http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm


3

From http://parsha.blogspot.com/2010/07/what-is-tzirah.html: Onkelos translates it as ערעיתא, hornet. Ibn Ezra understands it as a type of sickness of the body, along the lines of צרעת. So does Ibn Janach, that it is כליון ודבר


5

The general scholarly answer is, "We don't really know." On linguistic grounds (i.e. an analysis of its language of Late Literary Jewish Aramaic) it is usually considered a "late" targum, i.e. having been composed between the fourth and sixth centuries CE, and some even push it as late as the seventh to ninth centuries CE. We certainly know nothing of the ...


-2

There are 2 'famous' Targums. One (the one you're referring to in the question) is known as Targum Yonasan. This is a bit of a 'loose' translation, oftentimes giving explanations in addition to simply translating the words. The Gemara is referring to that Targum, which G-D wanted to remain hidden. Another Targum (and this is arguably the more famous one, as ...


2

Rabbi Wincelberg translated Rabbenu Avraham ben HaRambam's Kifayet al-Abidin (HaMaspik L'Ovdey Hashem) into English under the title The Guide to Serving God. According to his introduction it is the best translation of the Arabic.


5

Actually, the standard English translations of all of the books you mentioned were done from the Arabic, not from a Hebrew intermediary: Rosenblatt's Book of Beliefs and Opinions, Pines' Guide of the Perplexed, Mansoor's Book of Direction to the Duties of the Heart.


0

Megillat Taanit 4:8 (assuming this is the passage to which you are referring) discusses the literalist approach to Biblical interpretation taken by the Boethusians who rejected the Oral Law: "and they removed the garment before the elders of the city" - the words as they are written (i.e. literally, as interpreted by the Boethusians; The Oral tradition, ...


0

The first word is the infinitive and the second word is the future (second-person plural) of the same verb, to listen/hear.


0

The only thing about Yom Kippur in Megillat Taanit is in chapter 13, which says we fast that day and the golden calf was stoned for that day.


1

You appear to mean the Mishnah Ta'anis chapter 4 misnah 8 R. Simeon ben Gamaliel says, "Never were more joyous festivals in Israel than the fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur, for on them the maidens of Jerusalem used to go out dressed in white garments—borrowed ones, in order not to cause shame to those who had them not of their own;—these clothes ...


1

Fraenkel, Avinoam (trans./comm.) Nefesh HaTzimtzum: Rabbi Cahim Volozhin’s Nefesh HaChaim with Translation and Commentary, two volumes (Jerusalem – New York: Urim Publications, 2015). This edition provides the complete Nefesh HaChaim in English and Hebrew, along with a wealth of supplementary material, including a “deeply Kabbalistic” tract by Rabbi ...


0

There are several perspectives bearing on the issue. Samaritan Pentateuch Instead of the word תְבַעֲר֣וּ found in the Masoretic Text, the Samaritan Pentateuch instead understands the word to be תַבְעִירוּ, which is the first person plural of the same Hebrew verb, but in the hifʿîl (imperfect). Since the context is Moses speaking to the people, the reading ...


2

The root (בער) as listed in Jastrow has several different meanings depending on the context. For example, (בער) meaning to burn is found in Shemot Rabbah 2:5 which says, "since the bush burned..." http://www.sefaria.org/Shemot_Rabbah.2.5/he/Daat_Shemot_Rabbah?qh=הסנה%2Bבוער&lang=he&layout=lines&sidebarLang=all And in Bamidbar Rabbah, parshat ...



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