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5

Actually, the standard English translations of all of the books you mentioned were done from the Arabic, not from a Hebrew intermediary: Rosenblatt's Book of Beliefs and Opinions, Pines' Guide of the Perplexed, Mansoor's Book of Direction to the Duties of the Heart.


5

The general scholarly answer is, "We don't really know." On linguistic grounds (i.e. an analysis of its language of Late Literary Jewish Aramaic) it is usually considered a "late" targum, i.e. having been composed between the fourth and sixth centuries CE, and some even push it as late as the seventh to ninth centuries CE. We certainly know nothing of the ...


4

That is not the early Israelite understanding of cosmology, it is Babylonian cosmology. Tannaim (eg R' Eliezer on Bava Basra 25a) and the earlier Babylonian amoraim mapped the Torah to it, much the way rabbis today talk about Relativity and QM in the Torah. The Babylonians and Persians had much much more accurate observations than the Greeks, so this was ...


4

There are different opinions regarding the nature of the rakia. One opinion is that of R. Avraham Ibn Ezra who writes in his commentary to Genesis (1:6) (Shitta acheret) as follows: והנכון בעיני, כי הארץ היתה מכוסה במים, והרוח יבש המים מעל הארץ כדרך ויעבר א-להים רוח על הארץ וישכו המים (ברא' ח, א) אז נראה. ובעבור האור היה הרקיע. והוא האויר ההוה על הארץ ...


4

You can get it all online here or buy this ArtScroll set. You can also go old school and get the JPS set (that's the link for Devarim).


3

Any Jewish book store near where you live or online. Judaica World, Judaica Press, Koren, ArtScroll, World of Judaica, Eichlers, and even Amazon will have this. You can even go online and find it for free at ... http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm


3

From http://parsha.blogspot.com/2010/07/what-is-tzirah.html: Onkelos translates it as ערעיתא, hornet. Ibn Ezra understands it as a type of sickness of the body, along the lines of צרעת. So does Ibn Janach, that it is כליון ודבר


3

Rabbi Eliyahu Munk, in his book עולם התפילות, gives several reasons for this (which we say every day, not only on Shabbat): This is the end of the teffilah, after we already reached the hights during Shma Yisrael and Amida, and we are slowly descending and equipping ourselves towards our day. Therefore we need the explanation of the targum for example that ...


2

Rabbi Wincelberg translated Rabbenu Avraham ben HaRambam's Kifayet al-Abidin (HaMaspik L'Ovdey Hashem) into English under the title The Guide to Serving God. According to his introduction it is the best translation of the Arabic.


1

See the set I grew up with on Amazon and WorldCat. It is linear: each line of Hebrew has its translation near it. As far as I recall (though it's been a few years), it has a clear font (with Rashi in block, not "Rashi", script) and nice spacing between the lines, but a more opaque English.


1

You appear to mean the Mishnah Ta'anis chapter 4 misnah 8 R. Simeon ben Gamaliel says, "Never were more joyous festivals in Israel than the fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur, for on them the maidens of Jerusalem used to go out dressed in white garments—borrowed ones, in order not to cause shame to those who had them not of their own;—these clothes ...


1

Fraenkel, Avinoam (trans./comm.) Nefesh HaTzimtzum: Rabbi Cahim Volozhin’s Nefesh HaChaim with Translation and Commentary, two volumes (Jerusalem – New York: Urim Publications, 2015). This edition provides the complete Nefesh HaChaim in English and Hebrew, along with a wealth of supplementary material, including a “deeply Kabbalistic” tract by Rabbi ...



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