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I would guess that the name that you saw is a Yiddish name called פעשע or פעשא. For example. It is Yiddish for Passover and used as a girl's name. Although a more typical transliteration would be Pesche, you certainly see anglicized versions of a Shin as a double ss. Or, it could have been a french transliteration of Pesach (or come through french). For ...
דוד is referring to King David. דויד is referring to Moshiach ben David specifically as Melech HaMoshiach. This is brought in Kol HaTor 2: 2. This is also brought in Be'er Yitzchok on Likkutei HaGra 63.
The reason is because of david's friendship with Jonathan. A yud was added to David's name and a 'hei' to Jonathan's. To show that their great friendship had hashem's blessing. Since these were 'additions' one doesnt use them in spelling their names. Although R Yehonasan Eibeshuts did add the 'hei'. I will have to look for the source.
Partial answer to changes from ךָ- to הַּ-, particularly in Birkat Hashannim (Amidah) I assume that you are referring to the difference between 1- שבעינו מטובך vs. 2 - שבעינו מטובה. The 1st one means "Your goodness" is said outside Israel because we are referring to G-d's general goodness in blessing the land of Israel. The 2nd version said in Israel, ...
I got this info from another site : " Ask the Rabbi" - it seems to have another brilliant answer ! Dov David (Bernie) May at "Ohr Samayach" at: http://ohr.edu/ask/ask294.htm
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