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The previous answer does touch on the point that this was a declaration to excuse those placed in cherem (excommunication). See this comprehensive article that discusses the topic as well as how some of the ideas crossed over into the Kol Nidre paragraph that follows in the service. Much of the article has English translation. Feel free to contact me ...


4

For jews kitzur shulchan aruch 151.7 Rectification for one who failed in this sin  are written in the book ''Yesod Yosef''  which was gathered and brought together from earlier holy books, and I will write here a little from them in brief.  It is good to be a Sandek that has children circumcised on his knees and particularly to be a Sandek for poor ...


3

The Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin 108 amud 1) says pretty much explicitly that animals cannot sin: וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה אם אדם חטא בהמה מה חטאה תנא משום רבי יהושע בן קרחה משל לאדם שעשה חופה לבנו והתקין מכל מיני סעודה לימים מת בנו עמד ופזר את חופתו אמר כלום עשיתי אלא בשביל בני עכשיו שמת חופה למה לי אף הקב״ה אמר כלום בראתי בהמה וחיה אלא בשביל ...


2

One is not judged by the 613 commandments unless one is born Jewish or formally converts. A non-Jew could feel they have a Jewish soul, but may eat pork aplenty until converting. (In fact, non-Jews are not supposed to observe the Sabbath, which leads to some discussion about whether someone studying for conversion should somehow break his Sabbath observance ...


2

(I'll respond to the question as it applies to Yom Kippur, as asked. The verse in Numbers is actually talking about a different context, and the same question can be asked there — but wasn't.) According to Maimonides (Yad, T'shuva 1:3–4): T'shuva[1] atones for all sins. Even [if one was] an evildoer all his days and did t'shuva at the end, ...


1

to add a bit to msh210's answer as to why animals don't sin, here's a quote from the Duties of the Heart part 2 (one of the classic works on jewish philosophy) It is through the understanding that we realize the Creator's wisdom, power and mercy, of which the universe provides clear evidence. It is the understanding which shows us that we ought to ...


1

Actually, there are types of people placed in חרם, or excommunication for certain crimes, such as not listening to the orders of a בית דין, or Jewish court. This excommunication prohibits almost every type of social interaction, including praying together. However, as Yom Kippur is the day of atonement and retuning to G-d, a special exemption is made for ...



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