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The view of R. Ovadiah Yosef (as presented in his son's Kitzur Yalkut Yosef 58:3) is that the latest time to fulfill the mitzvah of shma is 3 shaot zmaniot (variable hours) into the day. Optimally these should be reckoned beginning with dawn and ending with the emergence of 3 stars as per the view of the Magen Avraham, but in pressing cases one may rely on ...


You should read Rabbeinu Bartenura's commentary on the Mishnah, esp. the last few sentences. I'll summarize the main point. He explains that when Rav Yehoshua says "3 hours", it really means 1/4 of the day, and 3 hours is used as a phrase assuming that the length of the day and night are equal. Hence, "hours" are sha'ot z'maniyot. I.e., the length of the ...

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