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23

From the archaeological evidence it is clear that the Hebrew srcipt being used during the First Temple Period was what's known as the Ivri script (a handy conversion chart can be found here) which is very similar to Phoenician, as opposed to our script nowadays which is called Ashuri script. In terms of what script was used at Mount Sinai, there is a 3 way ...


16

Not only are these letters kosher, but they are part of the ancient way of writing the text. Maimonides (Sefer Torah 7:8) urges the scribes to ensure to be careful in preserving the irregular aspects of the text, among which he lists: אותייות הגדולות, ובאותייות הקטנות, ובאותייות הנקודות, ובאותייות שצורתן משונות כגון הפיין הלפופות, והאותייות העקומות כמו ...


13

You are right. There is a Shita of the Meiri Bais HaBechira in Megila that says that on Parshas Shekalim you should only take out one Sefer Torah. I imagine that the reason the Shulchan Aruch mentions that we use two Sefer Torahs is because of Lo Pelug.


12

The following information is recorded on the Mechon Mamre website: בתנ"כים שלנו יש גם סימני הפרשייות {פ} {ס} {ר} {ש} שהם מסמנים פרשה פתוחה, פרשה סתומה, סוף שורה בשירות מסויימות, ושורה ריקה (או שורות ריקות בסוף ספר).‏ My translation: In our Tanakhs there are also [the following] disjunctive symbols: פ,‎ ס,‎ ר,‎ ש, which stand for ...


11

R. J.D. Bleich covered this topic in a recent Survey of Recent Halakhic Periodical Literature. In the article he discusses a number of possible issues that have been raised with Silk-screen Sifrei Torah, but says that most of them are not so strong. He says there is one serious objection where the burden of proof falls on the innovators to show that it is ...


10

Sefer HaToda'ah (The Book of Our Heritage) says that taking out multiple scrolls would seem unnecessary when the second portion is in close proximity to the first. Never-the-less, he says that the custom is to take out multiple Torahs.


10

Rabbi Moshe Isserlis writes (YD 275:6) about various scribal traditions including large/small letters that אם שינה לא פסל - if [the scribe] deviated, he did not invalidate [the scroll]. Obviously if they can be fixed, one should do so to conform with the tradition.


9

It took me just over three years for each that I did. I wrote roughly half an amud(21 lines a day) using a reed. The cost was just over $8k, but I used an exceptionally high quality klaf(better surfaced and no gid marks). For the second it was just over $12K(though that was a nightmare of a sefer to write). I wrote in Klaf Gvil, which costs double the ...


8

The Gemara there (70a) points out that there's a difference. In the kohen gadol's case, it would be one person reading from two different sifrei Torah; that would lead people to think that the first one was invalid. Where it's different people reading from different scrolls, though, it is fine. (The example the Gemara gives there - Rosh Chodesh Teves on ...


8

Rashi is actually quoting here from Bereshis Rabbah 61. The question is, do we trust the midrash with the text of our sifrei torah, and "fix" the problem accordingly, or do we trust the vast majority of our texts and sifrei torah that have the word with two yud's? Beis Yosef (YD 275), who claims that this problem happens quite often, seems to say (correct ...


8

Rav Belsky, on page 9 of Shulchan Halevi (English version), explains that while theoretically silk-screening could be kosher for writing Stam, there are some issues which can come up. He mentions that forgeries would increase, and there there could be a problem of kesidran ("written in order," which Teffilin and Mezuzah require). Then he brings an issue ...


8

From what I understand, your second question is based on the assumption that every column begins what a Vav. While this seems to be common practice, it is frowned upon by the Poskim who seem to claim that it has no basis in halacha. See for example the Keseth HaSofer at the end of Ch. 4 - and the footnote there. He claims that the ווי העמודים - as it's ...


8

The Ramma in siman 131 siff 2 brings from the Beis Yosef who quotes a Rokeach -- The Rokeach also writes in siman 324 not to 'fall' unless in front of a seffer torah. And a siman for this is found in the war against Ay (Yehoshua 7, 6) 'and he fel lon his face in front of the aron'." The Beis Yosef concludes by saying if it's accepted (kabbala), ...


7

Per this link http://www.torahlab.org/calendar/article/is_there_another_torah/ Today the Maharam’s Torah is in the Aron Kodesh of the famous Alt-neu shul in Prague.


7

Tzedaka U'Mishpot 16:2 note 3 indictaes that he has been unable to find a source for this Minhag.


7

There are two special layouts for songs - half-brick over brick, and half-brick over half-brick. The half-brick over brick is triumphant and good. The half-brick over half-brick is bad - bury the sons of Haman or the sins of the Jews. Megillah 16b that you reference says: ‫אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח ...


7

In the Sefer Avnei Yashfei 4:109:2 was asked if a sefer Torah fell inside the Aron Kodesh does one have to fast. He writes that one does not have to fast(there is more savoros but put in whats applicable here), the main reason being that it is not a place for walking like the Atzei HaLevanon 2:71 writes(he is quoted in previous part of tshuva regarding some ...


7

Sefer Hachiunuch doesn't list the reading/learning as its own commandment. Instead, part of his definition of the commandment for the king to write a Torah scroll, Commandment #494, includes "so that it will always be with him, and he'll read from it." He does not, however, specify how frequently or extensively the king is to read from it. He further ...


6

In this article by Gil Student titled "On the Text of the Torah", this and other textual issues are discussed. In the article (In the Aggadic Midrash section ) he proposes that it was actually pretty common practice for the Rabbis to deliberately "change" the word in order to drive home a homiletic point. from the article (please read it for context and ...


6

There is a book called Fixing God's Torah, Barry Levy. It deals with this Rashba. There is a Rebbi Akiva Aiger in Masechet Shabbat (55B) where he has a list of such issues. Also note, in the examples given above, they are letters that the gemara (Kiddushin 30A) says "we are not expert in full and defective spelling" i.e. the use of the vav. The yud is more ...


6

Apparently, at least in the last couple of centuries, the Keter was jealously guarded and people indeed were not permitted to make copies of it. (There may well have been other copies of it from Rambam's times or the next couple of centuries after that, but if so, they either haven't survived or are unknown.) One important source that we do have - R. ...


6

Since no one has listed a summary of concise rulings, I will list R. Bleich's conclusion from his Survey of Recent Halakhic Periodical Literature. I have inserted the sources that he mentioned throughout the survey in brackets. The silk screen method is certainly subject to challenge on the basis of its inherent incompatibility with a number of ...


6

Your second answer seems to be closest... As far as we can tell, scrolls in the ancient world were kept wrapped in cloth and stored in wooden cases or boxes. The Gemara attests both to mitpahot [cloth wrappers] (Megillah 26a) and a tik [wooden case] (Megillah 26b) used to store sifrei Torah. Bracha Yaniv's article on Torah scroll accessories in the Balkans ...


6

Rambam Laws of Tefilin, Mezuzah, and Sefer Torah 1:13: יג ספר תורה תפילין ומזוזות שכתבן מין, יישרפו. כתבן גוי, או ישראל משומד, או מוסר, או עבד, או אישה, או קטן--הרי אלו פסולין וייגנזו: שנאמר "וקשרתם . . . וכתבתם" (דברים ו,ח-ט; דברים יא,יח-כ)--כל שמוזהר על הקשירה ומאמין בה, הוא שכותב. נמצאו ביד מין ואין ידוע מי כתבן, ייגנזו; נמצאו ביד גוי, כשרים. ...


6

If the Nun's were not inverted but were left as regular letters, it is kosher bdieved. Source: Sefer Keses Hasofer (Mahadura Tinyana), Chakira 17 (s.v. v'hinei hageonum) citing Noda Beyhudah and others (Sefer Keses Hasofer is the classic source for Hilchos Stam by Rav Shlomo Ganzfried, the author of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch and is probably the standard ...


6

Standard Sifrei Torah today have 42 lines in each column. While there are different opinions how many lines a Sefer Torah should be (See Keses Hasofer 13:6), this has not developed solwly out of Halacha. There's a good article about how this came to be here Until some 30 years ago, Sofrim didn't really have a good tikkun to copy from. They either used ...


5

There's a debate in the Talmud (which is in turn subject to more debate by commentaries how to understand it), the two opinions appear to be as follows: The original Torah was given in the script we now know (ktav ashuri). Back then, this script was only used for "sacred matters." Regular (not sacred) Hebrew documents were written in the proto-script (ktav ...


5

(Note that not every m'gila has a pole at one end. Some do, though, as you note. See Mishna B'rura 691:16.) Aruch Hashulchan (Orach Chayim 691:7) explains: A sefer Tora (Torah scroll) requires two poles because we read from it constantly; for n'viim and k'suvim one pole suffices. I suspect the intent is that a sefer Tora needs the greater stability ...


5

As others have mentioned, there are three opinions in the talmud regarding the issue. To summarize (as brought by DoubleAA): Rav zutra / R' Yossi - Torah was given ivri and turned to ashuri in the time of Ezra. Rebbe - given in ashuri, forgotten and used ivri until Ezra fixed it back to ashuri. R' Elazar Hamodai - Torah was always in ashuri. Rabbonim ...


5

Try Sefer Katan Ve'Gadol, by Rabbi Zvi Ron. It brings together all the different midrashim about every big or small letter in Tanach.



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