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20

From the archaeological evidence it is clear that the Hebrew srcipt being used during the First Temple Period was what's known as the Ivri script (a handy conversion chart can be found here) which is very similar to Phoenician, as opposed to our script nowadays which is called Ashuri script. In terms of what script was used at Mount Sinai, there is a 3 way ...


13

You are right. There is a Shita of the Meiri Bais HaBechira in Megila that says that on Parshas Shekalim you should only take out one Sefer Torah. I imagine that the reason the Shulchan Aruch mentions that we use two Sefer Torahs is because of Lo Pelug.


12

The following information is recorded on the Mechon Mamre website: בתנ"כים שלנו יש גם סימני הפרשייות {פ} {ס} {ר} {ש} שהם מסמנים פרשה פתוחה, פרשה סתומה, סוף שורה בשירות מסויימות, ושורה ריקה (או שורות ריקות בסוף ספר).‏ My translation: In our Tanakhs there are also [the following] disjunctive symbols: פ,‎ ס,‎ ר,‎ ש, which stand for ...


11

Not only are these letters kosher, but they are part of the ancient way of writing the text. Maimonides (Sefer Torah 7:8) urges the scribes to ensure to be careful in preserving the irregular aspects of the text, among which he lists: אותייות הגדולות, ובאותייות הקטנות, ובאותייות הנקודות, ובאותייות שצורתן משונות כגון הפיין הלפופות, והאותייות העקומות כמו ...


10

R. J.D. Bleich covered this topic in a recent Survey of Recent Halakhic Periodical Literature [paywall]. In the article he discusses a number of possible issues that have been raised with Silk-screen Sifrei Torah, but says that most of them are not so strong. He says there is one serious objection where the burden of proof falls on the innovators to show ...


9

Sefer HaToda'ah (The Book of Our Heritage) says that taking out multiple scrolls would seem unnecessary when the second portion is in close proximity to the first. Never-the-less, he says that the custom is to take out multiple Torahs.


8

Rav Belsky, on page 9 of Shulchan Halevi (English version), explains that while theoretically silk-screening could be kosher for writing Stam, there are some issues which can come up. He mentions that forgeries would increase, and there there could be a problem of kesidran ("written in order," which Teffilin and Mezuzah require). Then he brings an issue ...


8

It took me just over three years for each that I did. I wrote roughly half an amud(21 lines a day) using a reed. The cost was just over $8k, but I used an exceptionally high quality klaf(better surfaced and no gid marks). For the second it was just over $12K(though that was a nightmare of a sefer to write). I wrote in Klaf Gvil, which costs double the ...


7

The Gemara there (70a) points out that there's a difference. In the kohen gadol's case, it would be one person reading from two different sifrei Torah; that would lead people to think that the first one was invalid. Where it's different people reading from different scrolls, though, it is fine. (The example the Gemara gives there - Rosh Chodesh Teves on ...


7

Rashi is actually quoting here from Bereshis Rabbah 61. The question is, do we trust the midrash with the text of our sifrei torah, and "fix" the problem accordingly, or do we trust the vast majority of our texts and sifrei torah that have the word with two yud's? Beis Yosef (YD 275), who claims that this problem happens quite often, seems to say (correct ...


7

Per this link http://www.torahlab.org/calendar/article/is_there_another_torah/ Today the Maharam’s Torah is in the Aron Kodesh of the famous Alt-neu shul in Prague.


7

There are two special layouts for songs - half-brick over brick, and half-brick over half-brick. The half-brick over brick is triumphant and good. The half-brick over half-brick is bad - bury the sons of Haman or the sins of the Jews. Megillah 16b that you reference says: ‫אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח ...


7

Sefer Hachiunuch doesn't list the reading/learning as its own commandment. Instead, part of his definition of the commandment for the king to write a Torah scroll, Commandment #494, includes "so that it will always be with him, and he'll read from it." He does not, however, specify how frequently or extensively the king is to read from it. He further ...


6

In this article by Gil Student titled "On the Text of the Torah", this and other textual issues are discussed. In the article (In the Aggadic Midrash section ) he proposes that it was actually pretty common practice for the Rabbis to deliberately "change" the word in order to drive home a homiletic point. from the article (please read it for context and ...


6

There's a debate in the Talmud (which is in turn subject to more debate by commentaries how to understand it), the two opinions appear to be as follows: The original Torah was given in the script we now know. However that script was only used for "sacred matters." Common Hebrew documents were written in the proto-script. Around 2500 years ago, Ezra ...


6

Apparently, at least in the last couple of centuries, the Keter was jealously guarded and people indeed were not permitted to make copies of it. (There may well have been other copies of it from Rambam's times or the next couple of centuries after that, but if so, they either haven't survived or are unknown.) One important source that we do have - R. ...


6

Your second answer seems to be closest... As far as we can tell, scrolls in the ancient world were kept wrapped in cloth and stored in wooden cases or boxes. The Gemara attests both to mitpahot [cloth wrappers] (Megillah 26a) and a tik [wooden case] (Megillah 26b) used to store sifrei Torah. Bracha Yaniv's article on Torah scroll accessories in the Balkans ...


5

(Note that not every m'gila has a pole at one end. Some do, though, as you note. See Mishna B'rura 691:16.) Aruch Hashulchan (Orach Chayim 691:7) explains: A sefer Tora (Torah scroll) requires two poles because we read from it constantly; for n'viim and k'suvim one pole suffices. I suspect the intent is that a sefer Tora needs the greater stability ...


5

Just to throw in a few more modern sources: Har Tzevi OC 1:32, Minchat Yitzchak 4:47 and Mishneh Halachot 7:8 all explicitly rule that Vellish is kosher. Tzitz Eliezer 14:3:4 permits post facto even Sta"m that was written with a mix of Vellish and Ashkenazi. Igrot Moshe OC 5:2 also permits other forms of writing but he is quick to point out that it is better ...


5

The Tur Yoreh Deah 274 says in the name of the Rosh that there is no issue with the different lettering. The Meiri Shabbos 104a also indicates that there is no issue. The Noda B'Yehuda Yora Deah 171 also indicates that it is fine.


5

There is a book called Fixing God's Torah, Barry Levy. It deals with this Rashba. There is a Rebbi Akiva Aiger in Masechet Shabbat (55B) where he has a list of such issues. Also note, in the examples given above, they are letters that the gemara (Kiddushin 30A) says "we are not expert in full and defective spelling" i.e. the use of the vav. The yud is more ...


5

Since no one has listed a summary of concise rulings, I will list R. Bleich's conclusion from his Survey of Recent Halakhic Periodical Literature. I have inserted the sources that he mentioned throughout the survey in brackets. The silk screen method is certainly subject to challenge on the basis of its inherent incompatibility with a number of ...


5

Rambam Laws of Tefilin, Mezuzah, and Sefer Torah 1:13: יג ספר תורה תפילין ומזוזות שכתבן מין, יישרפו. כתבן גוי, או ישראל משומד, או מוסר, או עבד, או אישה, או קטן--הרי אלו פסולין וייגנזו: שנאמר "וקשרתם . . . וכתבתם" (דברים ו,ח-ט; דברים יא,יח-כ)--כל שמוזהר על הקשירה ומאמין בה, הוא שכותב. נמצאו ביד מין ואין ידוע מי כתבן, ייגנזו; נמצאו ביד גוי, כשרים. ...


4

It's a machlokes (dispute among) rishonim. See a talk by Rabbi Josh Flug, and the sources he cites, if you're interested in the machlokes, but I'll note that among Rabbi Flug's points are that Rashi holds purchasing suffices and that Rambam seems to hold it does not; CYLOR if you're interested in the practical halacha.


4

From an engineering perspective, when you are holding the Torah scroll at the bottom, the gartel should be on the upper half because that is where it is needed more. You have the bottom under control but the top can tilt so it can also open or twist. Imagine trying to balance an up-side down broom on your hand, based on leverage, the higher (and further from ...


4

As others have mentioned, there are three opinions in the talmud regarding the issue. To summarize (as brought by DoubleAA): Rav zutra / R' Yossi - Torah was given ivri and turned to ashuri in the time of Ezra. Rebbe - given in ashuri, forgotten and used ivri until Ezra fixed it back to ashuri. R' Elazar Hamodai - Torah was always in ashuri. Rabbonim ...


4

The Rama (OC 143:2) writes: בחומשים שלנו, אפילו כל ה' ספרים ביחד אין לברך עליהם, ובמקום שיש ס"ת ואין ש"ץ הבקי בנגינה בעל פה, ראיתי נוהגים שהש"ץ קורא מן החומש בנקוד והעולה קורא אחריו מן הס"ת הכשר.‏ In our Chumashim [which are printed] even if all 5 Books [of the Torah] are included, one cannot recite a blessing over [reading from] them. In a place ...


4

A scroll can be repaired by specially trained people, or, if it is beyond repair, it can be ritually stored/buried. http://www.sofer.co.uk/html/repairing_a_scroll.html is a site for one person who explains some of hat he does (I am not affiliated with him and am not endorsing his services -- just using his website to illustrate some of the possibilities). ...


4

We use a torah scroll for the torah service because that is the halacha (see here citing Rama (OC 143:2)). Just because there's a more "convenient" format doesn't mean we're free to change how we perform public worship. (I mean, why not skip books entirely and project the text onto the wall, in that case? But we don't, even on weekdays when there'd be no ...


4

No. The miniature Sefer Torah in your link is not a Kosher Sefer Torah. As per Rabbi Doniel Neustadt a non Kosher Torah does not receive the same respect of a Kosher Torah. And it seems to me that he is talking about a Torah that can be Kosher and became non Kosher. You are questioning regarding a Tirah that was never Kosher and is impossible to become ...



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