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13

The Keset HaSofer, by Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried, rules (6:4) that when multiple children disagree about the reading of a letter we follow the majority. I suppose if there are only 2 children, we wait עד שיבוא השלישי ויכריע ביניהם -- until a third one comes and resolves the contradiction.


12

This question is discussed by Rabbi Kaganoff “One must desecrate Shabbos even if there is only a slight possibility that the situation is dangerous. One does not need a professional opinion or an expert physician. Whenever one is uncertain whether the situation is dangerous, he is required to desecrate Shabbos (Shu’t Tashbeitz 1:54).” Once you suspect ...


11

Minchas Chinuch argues that indeed, when the Sanhedrin was functioning and we used an observation-based calendar, Chanukah in outlying places would have had to have been celebrated for nine days. "When the Beis Hamikdash is rebuilt, speedily in our days," he says, "and we go back to sanctifying the months based on observation - then faraway places (for Eretz ...


10

We only add an extra day for a D’oraisa like the ‘Sholosh Regalim’. Chanukah is a D’Rabbanan. (See Taamei Minhagim 864 in the name of the Avudraham) In addition as Chanuka starts on the 25th day of the Hebrew month we can presume that the Sheluchei Beis Din would have arrived and everyone would know when it actually began.


10

The Talmud (Pesachim 54b) states that only for Tisha bAv must we be stringent for Bein Hashemashot. There is an opinion in Rishonim that only regarding the Bein Hashemashot at the beginning of the day is Tisha bAv unique, but all fasts require being stringent at the end because we have to wait until it is certainly night to uproot the current status (chazaka)...


8

It is discussed in Darkei Teshuva (89:5). He brings an authority that says one may not eat until he is sure 6 hours have passed (or whatever one's customary waiting time may be), and that the general rule of ספק דרבנן לקולא does not apply here. He then brings several others who disagree and believe that the rule does apply here and one may eat dairy if he is ...


8

One of the Rabbis in the Talmud reacts to this verse in a similar way to you (חגיגה ד ב): רבי אמי כי מטי להאי קרא בכי (צפניה ב, ג) בקשו צדק בקשו ענוה אולי תסתרו ביום אף ה' אמר כולי האי ואולי Rabbi Ami would weep when coming to the following verse: "...seek righteousness, seek humility. It may be ye shall be hid in the day of the LORD'S anger."...


7

The general rule with berachot is safek berachot l'hakel- in a case where we are not sure whether we make a beracha we err to the side of not making another one. This is a subset of the general rule of safek d'rabanan l'kulah (we are lenient about doubts which occur on mitzvos from the Rabbis.) The exceptions are berachot that are d'orayta "from the Torah" ...


7

רמ"א, תורת העולה, ח"א פרק ו The Rema in תורת העולה, ח"א פרק ו says וכבר כתב חכם אחד שלא טעם טעם שמחה מי שלא טעם התרת הספיקות השכליות and a wise man said that someone who has not tasted the resolution of (intellectual?) doubt has not tasted joy, in connection with שמחת בית השואבה ! Metzudat David is from “18th century David Altschuler” and the ...


7

Some General Guidelines: Safek pekuach nefesh - if the situation is possibly life-threatening, one should act to save a life. Safek d'orayta l'chumrah - if it's a doubt about a d'oraysa, he should be stringent. Safek Brachot l'hakel - if it's a doubt about saying a blessing (of Rabbinic origin), don't say it. Shev v'al ta'aseh adif - if you're in a ...


6

When one has a door between two rooms there is a list of criteria to determine which side is considered the right side of the door. You should evaluate them in order. As soon as one is met, you have determined the right side and can ignore all of the rest of the list. They are as follows: 1. Pnimi Chitzoni - That is to say, you consider it as if you enter ...


6

I would say that this is a question of the definition of testimony. We have the halachos in a number of places, including the talmud and Rambam hilchos Yibum, hilchos gittin, and hilchos nashim, about the circumstances as to who is believed if they come before bais din and testify that a person is dead. The implication of all of these is that the witness is ...


5

As already stated, this site does not replace a Rabbi. But here are some sources. The Mishan in Mas. Orla (3:10) says: ספק העורלה--בארץ ישראל אסור, ובסוריה מותר; ובחוצה לארץ יורד ולוקח, ובלבד שלא יראנו לוקט. If in doubt, then fruit that could be Orla are forbidden in Eretz Yisrael, but permitted in the Diaspora. That's also have the Shulchan Aruch ...


5

In The Laws of Ribbis (chapter 4, section D, paragraph 25, page 88), Rabbi Yisroel Reisman writes: It is important that both the borrower and lender keep accurate records of how much is owed. When records are not kept, there may be uncertainty regarding the balance which is owed. In this case, the borrower may pay the lender an amount of money which is ...


5

A giyur lechumra is usually intended for someone who's already fully observing Judaism. The execution is the same -- circumcision or drawing blood for men; declaration of mitzva acceptance and immersion in a mikva witnessed by three rabbis. If someone's already keeping everything but for instance oops, found out they were adopted, then the rabbis assume the ...


5

Shaalos Uteshuvos Radbaz 3:444 says that perhaps the Riva felt that his time was up and knew that he would die either way and therefore did not eat. "אפשר דריב"א ז"ל הרגיש בעצמו דאפילו שיאכל ימות ד'לב יודע מרת נפשו', והיינו דקאמר: ברי ושמא ברי עדיף. כלומר: הברי שלי [שאמות] עדיף משמא שלכם [שאולי תצילו אותי], ולפיכך לא רצה לאכול".‏ The "ברי" was ...


4

The 100% in 100% polyester and 100% silk suits refers to the visible part of the suit. Underneath that is an entire world of stuffing, reinforcement and other junk. The easiest place to see some of these is under the lapel; under the felt is something stiff, and it's not silk/polyester. These hidden parts are made from whatever material the factory can buy ...


4

I just heard another (Chassidic) answer in the Name of the Sfas Emes: Being that Chanuka and Purim happened relatively recently we relate to them better. Hence we are able to achieve the spiritual boost from these Holidays in a shorter time relative to the De'orasia (Biblical) holidays which happened in the more distant past, to which we are less connected.


4

To add to Avrohom Yitzchok's answer: The B'nei Yissaschar (Sivan 5:13; cf. Kisleiv 3:19) attributes this statement to the Rambam: ואמר הרמב"ם מי שלא טעם טעם התרת הספיקות (בתורה) לא טעם שמחה מימיו Translation: And the Rambam said, "Whoever has not tasted the taste of resolving doubts (in Torah), has not tasted joy all his days." I don't know ...


4

As Zeev said: Rambam, Laws of Reading the Shema 4:8 ח כל הטמאים--חייבין בקריאת שמע, ומברכין לפניה ולאחריה והן בטומאתן, אף על פי שאפשר להן לעלות מטומאתן בו ביום, כגון הנוגעים בשרץ או בנידה וזבה ומשכבן וכיוצא בהן. ועזרא ובית דינו תיקנו שלא יקרא בעל קרי לבדו משאר הטמאים, עד שיטבול; ולא פשטה תקנה זו בכל ישראל, ולא היה כוח לרוב הציבור לעמוד בה--לפיכך בטלה. ...


4

Rabbi Aqiva Eiger (shu”t #136) says that there are two types of doubt, and each has its own mechanism for birur, for clarification. The case of qavu’ah is one where the reality was once established. So in principle, there is a specific halakhah assigned already to this case. The doubt is in what that halakhah is. In this situation, we do not invoke rules ...


4

Chaf-K says that the bracha applies to all kailim that the person had in mind when he siad the bracha. One who is being tovel more than one utensil should be careful not to talk between the first utensil and the second. 35 One who is toveling keilim and new keilim are brought to be toveled which he did not intend to tovel at the time he recited ...


3

Shulchan Aruch Harav also says the same thing, and adds a second reason. וכל מקום שחור ומברך צריך לאמר ג"כ ברכה רביעית שהיא מדברי סופרים כדי שלא יבואו לזלזל בה, ועוד שכך היתה התקנה שבכל פעם שמברך ברכת המזון יברך ד' ברכותה The first reason I understand him to be saying not that you would treat Benching as a whole disrespectfully, but that you would ...


3

Although in Hilchos Sefiras Ha'Omer we find that one makes a bracha based on a sfek sfaka (Mishne Berura 489:38), in general one may not rely on a sfek sfakah to make a bracha (Mishne Berura 215:20). Rav S.Z. Auerbach (Halichos Shlomo, Pesach 11, note 24) explains that with Sefiras Ha'Omer nearly all Poskim agree that one makes a bracha even if he forgot to ...


3

Contemporary poskim discuss how to approach statistics -- we tend to work with concepts of mi'ut hamatzui -- a "commonly occurring though less than 50% event", for which we do need to check; vs. mi'ut sh'eino matzui -- a rare event, for which we don't. Many poskim treat 10% as the cutoff line for mi'ut sh'eino matzui, based on a fascinating application from ...


3

This Young Israel publication says (summarised) that in cases of doubt or of differing views the poskim say to tendsto leniency with regard to tachanun. One should omit tachanun, rather than include it. Some suggest the reason based on the inclusion of the shlosh esrai midos. which should never be recited without proper kavanah. However, not all versions ...


3

The Rashba (Toras HaBayis, Bayis 4, Shaar 1, 11b. Also in his chiddushim on kiddushin 73a d"h mamzer vaday) says it's a Torah principle. The Ran (Kiddushin 15b according to the Rif pages) also holds it's a Torah principle. The Rambam (Perek 12 in hilchos tumas hames, halacha 12) holds it's a principle from the Rabbis. The Pri Chadash (Klalei sfek sfeka, ...


3

When there is a doubt, we rule based on habits. If you've done X all the time for the past 30 days or so, we assume you are in the habit of doing it. If you are not, then we assume you forgot. The level of doubt required is very small, the slightest lack of kavana, is enough to cause a situation of doubt. However, in practice, since we assume (I'm not ...


3

The Achronim (Shulchan Aruch OC 316:3) deal with the case of closing a box on Shabbos when there might be fly in it: Safek if there will be a definite Melacha of trapping. I believe there is a large Machloket there between the Achronim, with the Taz famously permitting closing the box. See also the Gemoro in Shabbos 41b about allowing someone to put cold ...



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