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You understand, I think, why there was a doubt about the day of Rosh Hashana and they needed two days (on the day after 29 Elul no one knew if witnesses would come or not, etc.). Thus, in fact, every date (eg.) on the Hebrew calendar had a one-day doubt to it (if you lived far enough away that messengers couldn't get to you in that number of days), either ...


1

Here's a piece on Chabad.org explaining it. Basically, it is on Elul 30 and Tishrei 1 -- the only problem is that Elul was set to only have 29 days. Back in the days of witness-based Rosh Chodesh, Elul sometimes had 29 and sometimes had 30 days. If it ended up having 29, then the day after (Tishrei 1) would be Rosh Hashanah and Tishrei 2 would be an ...


5

The shul you were attending seemed to have been following the custom of the Vilna Gaon. Rabbi A Grossman has an article entitled The Vilna Gaon’s Psalms for Special Days. Some extracts: ...the Vilna Gaon was faced with a conflict. Like Maimonides, he believed that the public prayers officially ended with the reader’s full qaddish, what we call ...


1

They start after Rosh chodesh. Source: http://www.sephardichazzanut.com/Selichot.htm Starting after Rosh Hodesh Elul, Sephardic Jews around the world wake up in the early morning to recite the Selichot which consist of special prayers and poems.


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every rosh hashana was 2 days for almost everybody for reason see Rambam kidush hachodesh 5 law 7-8 (in short: even if the witnesses came on the first (30th) day the court did not send messengers until after the first day was over (only jesuralem knew about it)) from there it seems that since rosh chodesh was not yomtov so they sent the messengers on the ...


3

The gemara in Maseches Nedarim Daf 60b (Art Scrool 60b2) says that if a neder is made "for a month), it starts on the first day of Rosh Chodesh (the 30th of the preceding month) if it starts with two days Rosh Chodesh. If it ends with two days Rosh Codesh, the first day of Rosh Chodesh is treated as the neder having ended even though it is technically the ...


3

We call the two days of Rosh Hashana "1" and "2" (of Tishre) because we know the correct day of RH is the day we call "1" (and indeed Israelis keep only "15" as yom tov, not "16"). Similarly, we call the two days of rosh chodesh "30 and "1" because we know the correct day of RC is the day we call "1" (and indeed we keep "17" (of Tamuz) as a fast, not "16"). ...



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