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12

We add the additional month in order to keep Pesach in the spring, as the Torah mandates (Deut. 16:1). So it is added as close to Nissan as possible, in order to make explicit the link between the extra month and its purpose. Tosafos (Sanhedrin 12a, s.v. אין מעברין) says that since we have verses in Tanach (Esther 3:7 passim) that call Adar the "twelfth ...


9

The earliest source seems to be Machzor Vitry (by Rabbeinu Simcha of Vitry, one of Rashi's disciples), sec. 190. He states that this is done so that: people will be clear on when the upcoming holidays are ("takkanas hamoados") people will know when Rosh Chodesh itself is, which is important for: a. reciting Mussaf b. reciting Hallel c. women not working ...


8

Shaar Hakollel (26:7) writes that our "blessing of the month" is modeled on the prayer that the Sanhedrin would recite when they declared a new month, described in Maseches Sofrim 19:9. Thus, we should know the molad before we recite this prayer, just as they did. Homiletically, R' Shalom Dovber Schneersohn (the fifth Lubavitcher Rebbe) said that the ...


8

The answer that circulates in the name of the Vilna Gaon (if I recall correctly) is: Once before we've asked for "a life of wealth and honor"; then once again afterwards.


8

Tur (Orach Chaim 427) explains as follows: A lunar month is 29-1/2 days plus some extra chalakim. Since a month has to have an integral number of days, the months (usually) alternate between 30 and 29. The 30th day, then, is always going to have to be Rosh Chodesh: If the month was 29 days, then the 30th day is the first day of the next month, and is Rosh ...


8

R. Reuven Margolios in his sefer Ollelos here explains that when the Sanhedrin used to determine the date of Rosh Chodesh according to the sighting of witnesses of the new moon, it was of course impossible to announce beforehand on which day Rosh Chodesh would fall. But later, when the Romans made decrees which disrupted the announcements of the Sanhedrin ...


7

I wonder if maybe they misinterpreted the source from which they got the times. Suppose that the original said "ליל שני" or the like; that would properly mean "the night leading into Monday" (i.e., Sunday night), but the printers of your chumash may have misunderstood that to mean Monday night. Out of curiosity, then, can you post several months' worth of ...


7

The Levush (brought by the Mishnah Berurah - Orach Chaim Siman 423) says that since the Teffilah of Mussaf is instead of the Korban Mussaf and when we give the Korban it is like a Yom Tov, therfore Just like on Yom Tov we do not wear Teffilin so to by Hallel we do not wear Teffilin. (As a side he adds when the Kriyas Hatorah of the Korban Mussaf is read the ...


6

Sanhedrin 11b: Before the setting of the calendar, those in charge of being meaber would base their decision on two of three factors which were related to the ripeness of the produce during adar (is the barley ripe enough to call Nissan "Aviv", will the fruits be ripe for Shavuos), and could not be determined earlier.


6

Simple answer -- there are twelve terms of request in a normal year (chaim, shalom, sason, simcha ...), one for each month. Leap year has a thirteenth month, so a thirteenth term. Now why we say "indemnity of iniquity" [try saying that five times fast!] per se (other than it follows nicely from the previous pair about forgiveness and pardon), and whether ...


6

The question is, effectively, why pray for something that should be in our hands, if it's free will? The obverse of this question is: when we pray that there be fewer sinners in the world, are we praying that G-d tinker with their free will? The Chazon Ish answered yes, we are. Rabbi Moshe Feinstein wrote otherwise; people have free will, but there are all ...


5

The kapparah of Rosh Chodesh is different than the regular type. On one level, the goat offered as a chatas on this day (also on the other Yamim Tovim, incidentally, except for Yom Kippur) is to atone for cases of tum'ah involving the Beis Hamikdash or sacred foods where there was "no knowledge at the beginning or the end" - in other words, the person never ...


5

Luach Davar B'Ito 5771 page 283 says that you do not say Amein after V'leslichas Avon, you say Amein after V'lchaporas Pesha.


4

Mishna B'rura says each day is separate from the last because each one commemorates an individual and independent chag that each day's nasi' made in celebration of his contribution to the dedication of the Mishkan. Similarly we say full halel each day of Sukos because each day had a separate type of karban.


4

The reason we take off our tefillin before mussaf is (1) because many say in the kedusha of mussaf, "Kesser Yitnu Lecha", and therefore we need not be wearing the "kesser" of tefillin. (Or I heard once that perhaps it is disrespectful to say "Kesser Yitnu Lecha" while we are wearing our own "crowns" of tefillin.) (2) Even for those who don't say "kesser ...


4

Nitei Gavriel, in the introduction to the second volume of his Laws of Niddah, quotes the Sefer Imrei Yehudah Al Hatorah. (It starts here, but the part that's relevant to us is here). The Imrei Yehudah Al Hatorah (Tazria pg. 89) explains that we say: ‫ כי בעמך ישראל בחרת מכל האומות‬ ‫וחוקי ראשי חדשים להם קבעת‬ For you have chosen your nation ...


4

http://www.dailyhalacha.com/Display.asp?PageIndex=11&ClipID=967 Kaf Hachayim 419:6 mentions it and the Vilna Gaon used to wear something special for Rosh Chodesh


4

I just found a Kunteros Achron #448 published on the bottom of the Taamei Haminhagim #448. He writes that the reason we say Ulichaporas Pasha is in case the year was made into a leap year in error and through that we are eating Chomeitz on Pesach.


4

The second line of your source in Sefer HaminHagim mentions Rosh Chodesh


4

With regards to the Chabad tradition of starting from the first day of Rosh Chodesh Elul (which is the 30th of Av), Dayan Raskin (pdf page 217, footnote 469) points toward the Divrei Nechemia's Hashlamot to the Shulchan Aruch Harav 581, Kuntres Acharon 1. There, the Divrei Nechemia discusses how Moshe's 3rd ascent to Mount Sinai was the first day of Rosh ...


4

The Mishna in Rosh haShana (3:1) states that even if all the Jews and the Beit Din saw the new moon, but didn't manage to declare the new month before the end of the day, then the (previous) month is 'full' (ie has 30 days and the new month would begin the next day). In other words, Rosh Chodesh is set by declaration of the people via Beit Din, not by when ...


4

As others have answered, technically the establishment of the calendar is a prerequisite for observing the Jewish holidays. This commandment is in fact the first mitzva given to the Jewish people as a nation. (The few mitzvot recorded in Bereishit were given to individuals before we became a nation.) The Seforno explains that setting the Jewish calendar ...


4

Just an idea that comes to mind, the idea of kiddush ha'chodesh and the holidays in general is that we establish and sanctify time. This is reflected in the wording of the bracha of shmoneh esrai on holidays and rosh chodesh of "מקדש ישראל והזמנים - ...who sanctifies the Jewish people and the times" ie. God sanctifies us and we sanctify the times. This ...


4

In the Kuntras Yekar Tifferes (http://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=36072&st=&pgnum=204) the author brings this question in the name of HaRav Zvi Perzovicz shlitoh who provides an interesting answer. The Tur in the beginning of Hilchos Rosh Chodesh says that really the 12 Roshei Chadashim should have been Yomim Toivim, however, because of ...


4

The first record of Yom Kippur Kattan is in the Pri Chadash (Rabbi Chizkiya De-Saluha) to Orach Chaim 417. He attributes it as a custom from the Kabbalist known as the Ramak (Rabbi Moshe Cordovero - the generation before the Arizal). The original custom is primarily about fasting, with some additions of Slichos, etc. which developed. Today, due to the ...


4

Mishna Berura 417:1 ר"ח וכו' - מנהג קדמונינו לברך את החודש בשבת שלפני ר"ח חוץ מלפני ר"ח תשרי ורמז לזה בכסה ליום חגנו The custom is to bless the new month on the preceding Shabbos, with the exception of Rosh Chodesh Tishrei. A hint to this is the verse "in hiding the day of our Holiday" I once heard an explanation that this is in line with the ...


3

Adar is the last month in the year. So from a simple technical standpoint it's the easiest to add a month then. Especially if you want all the other months' numbers to remain like they should be (and more importantly - compatible with what the Torah calls them)


3

Regarding converting Chalakim into seconds, that would only work on the months that it is 3,6,9,12, or 15 Chalakim. However imagine next month Teves when the Molad is Monday 9:48AM + 4 Chalakim, would you announce Monday 48 minutes and 13 1/3 seconds after 9AM? If you would announce just the hours and Chalakim most people would have no idea what you are ...


3

A really intriguing answer is brought in the Aruch Hasulchan (417:6-9) That it is based on a Yerushalmi in Sanhedrin 5:3 Where it brings a case where 2 people came to testify about a crime and one says it was the Second day of the Month another says it was the third and we cant disprove their testimony because maybe one knew that the Month had an extra day ...


3

The pamphlet "הדף היומי בהלכה", published by Dirshu, issue 4, Ⅰ Adar 5774, cites K'dushas Levi (Ki Sisa) and S'fas Emes (likutim for Adar) as saying that the month of Adar (whose zodiac sign is fish) corresponds to Yosef (which, like fish, is unaffected by ayin hara) — see the Tur (OC 417), who says each month corresponds to a tribe. Thus, it had ...



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