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Your question assumes that hitting the rock was the sin. I happen to believe that the sin was falling on their faces in front of the nation and not standing up for G-d, which was an (in)action perpetrated by both. I cannot explain the entire theory here; read these source sheets: http://www.sefaria.org/sheets/tags/Moshe%20and%20Aharon's%20Real%20Sin.


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Aharon was punished because he did not act in conformity with his defining middah of Oheiv Shalom V'Rodeif Shalom by restraining Moshe's anger and ensuring that the dispute over the water shortage would be brought to a happy ending. According to the peshat, as recognized by the Rashbam, Chizkuni and Kli Yakar, the Mateh at Kadesh was the Mateh Aharon ...


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The Midrash Tanchuma ask the question: See Midrash Tanchuma (see here paragraph 10 (Yod)): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל אַהֲרֹן יַעַן לֹא הֶאֱמַנְתֶּם בִּי. לָמָּה נֶעֱנַשׁ אַהֲרֹן. ‏ The Midrash later says that Moshe itself asked this: אַף כָּךְ אָמַר מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי הִקְפַּדְתִּי, ...


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The function of warning is to verify that the man would continue despite a good knowledge, there is one opinion in Tanayim in masechet Macot (Rabbi Yosi) which said that Talmid Chacham doesn't need warning. But it seems that if the warned man will answer to the warners one "OK, right I stop it." there is no punishment and Teshuva is good. We are talking ...


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There is a disagreement between the Rambam and the Raavad regarding the Ir Hanidachas - wayward city, whether it is possible to remove the punishment if the town did indeed repent. The Rambam (עבודת כוכבים פרק ד׳ - הלכה ו׳) ו והיאך דין עיר הנדחת. בזמן שתהיה ראויה להעשות עיר הנדחת. בית דין הגדול שולחין ודורשין וחוקרין עד שידעו בראיה ברורה שהודחה כל ...


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Makkat mardut in Hebrew. The standard punishment for violating a rabbinic prohibition, vs. the more serious biblical ones. Thus: knowingly, purposely, ate beef boiled in milk despite witnesses' warnings? 39 biblically-mandated lashes (assuming he can take 39 of them). Knowingly, purposely ate chicken boiled in milk? Makkat mardut. Enough lashes that the ...



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