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The Talmud (Brachot 24a) mentions the calf (ie. the body segment of the leg with two bones) as a place on a women's body which was normally covered. Many Rishonim1 explain that this is mentioned to teach that the status of a covered body part for women is independent of its also being a covered body part for men (which, apparently, the calf wasn't at the ...


1

The truth is that the Sefardim in this instance actually do not follow the opinions of the Beit Yosef, but rather the local customs of each city, or alternatively the opinion of the Chida in Birkei Yosef. The Ashkenazim on the other hand, do generally follow the Beis Yosef, with minor changes brought by the Darkei Moshe, Mishna Berura and Keses Hasofer


4

The first record of Yom Kippur Kattan is in the Pri Chadash (Rabbi Chizkiya De-Saluha) to Orach Chaim 417. He attributes it as a custom from the Kabbalist known as the Ramak (Rabbi Moshe Cordovero - the generation before the Arizal). The original custom is primarily about fasting, with some additions of Slichos, etc. which developed. Today, due to the ...


3

The extant manuscripts do not have that addition (see here footnote 8) however, there are many variations on this saying. It is apparently very common to have that addition in Edut HaMizrachi Nusachos, in addition to Nusach Sfard and Nusach Ari. The Arizal ascribes a specific Kabbalistic meaning to the two parts.


7

There is a book called שער הכולל that aims to explain the choices made in that version of the siddur. The author notes the following in regard to the phrase ובין איש לאשתו (chapter 1, paragraph 19): במשנה שלפנינו לא נמצאו התיבת הללו אבל בסדר היום ובשער השמים משל״ה מביאים הלשון הזה גם בתד״א פי״ג לענין אהרן הכהן מביא זה הלשון בין אדם לחבירו ובין איש ...



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