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15

See this summary on Wikipedia. The first five books of the Bible -- Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy -- form the "Torah" (like would be in a Torah scroll). The text of these is, as far as I know, identical between Jewish and Christian Bibles (though there will certainly be differences in translation; studying the original Hebrew is extremely ...


13

Jastrow says it indicates the subjunctive mood. If so, in Gen. 26:10, כִּזְעֵיר פּוֹן שְׁכֵיב means "he almost had lain" as opposed to "he almost lay"; in Gen. 31:27, וְשַׁלַּחְתָּךְ פּוֹן means "I'd have sent you" as opposed to "I sent you"; in Num. 22:29, אִלּוּ פּוֹן אִית חַרְבָּא means "if there were a sword" as opposed to "if there is a sword"; and in ...


12

The Talmud (Baba Metzia 59B) says, in the name of R' Elazar HaGadol, that 36 times in Torah we are warned against the wronging of a convert (46 if you count the times it says "because you were strangers in egypt" and the like - Tosafot). The reason given is because a convert has a strong inclination for evil, and you do not want to drive him back to his old ...


11

From the Wikipedia article on Chametz (leaven): The Torah has several commandments governing chametz during Passover: The positive commandment to remove all chametz from one's home (Exodus 12:15). Not to possess chametz in one's domain. (Exodus 12:19, Deuteronomy 16:4). Not to eat chametz, or mixtures containing chametz (Exodus 13:3, Exodus ...


10

Rashi understands it to be referring specifically to the Book of Deuteronomy. Metzodot David understands that it refers to the Law mentioned in the previous verse which the Malbim explicitly states refers to the entire Pentateuch. The Targum also implies that and I think it is the most straightforward read of the verses.


10

R' Hirsch (Isaac's suggestion) and Ramban (Hacham Gabriel's suggestion) are both widely available in English, and for good reason. Both are very easy to appreciate, both on the simplest of levels, as well as on much deeper planes. If your Hebrew improves or you can get a learning partner who is also capable of being a mentor, I highly, highly recommend ...


9

There are sometimes also differences in chapter/verse numeration. For example, Gen. 31:55 in the KJV is 32:1 in (most if not all) printed Hebrew Tanachs, so the numbering of all of the verses in ch. 32 is one off. Similarly, in Ex. 20 (the Ten Commandments) the KJV divides and numbers each of Commandments 6-9 as a separate verse (paralleling the way it's ...


8

I've got to put in a plug for the translation and commentary of R' Hirsch, of which I'm a big fan. I love his elegant, holistic, thoughtful take on the whole Torah, especially the ritual stuff in Leviticus (Temple offerings, ritual purity, etc.) that's otherwise most difficult to understand from a modern perspective. When I read R' Hirsch, everything fits ...


8

Even if as the others noted the actual book referred to is Deuteronomy or even all five books of the Pentateuch, the Talmud (Menachot 99B) understands the reference to refer at least symbolically to everything which is considered Torah.


8

It's generally accepted to stack sfarim (books) in order of holiness, with the holiest on top. As a chumash is considered to be holier than a Siddur the Chumash goes on top. See this question for a quote from the Shulchan Aruch. Modern day Siddurim are a little more complicated, as they contain (often at the back) weekday and other Torah readings, but ...


8

The source of this midrash is actually the Talmud in Chagigah 13b -- 14a. The Talmud states: תניא אמר רבי שמעון החסיד אלו תשע מאות ושבעים וארבע דורות שקומטו להיבראות קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור which Soncino translates as: It is taught: R. Simeon the Pious said: These are the nine hundred and ...


8

Actually, the earliest rabbinic sources present the Greek translation (the Septuagint) in glowing terms. In the Mishna, Megillah 1:8, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is quoted as having said that Greek is the only language, other than Hebrew, in which it is permissible to write sifrei Torah. Commenting on this, the Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah 71c) says that the ...


8

The Rambam (Moreh Nevukhim Part III, 45) writes, concerning Mount Moriah: "The fact that the Torah does not make specific mention of it [Jerusalem], but rather hints at it and says, "…[the place] which God will choose" etc., appears to me to have three explanations. The first: so that the nations would not seize the place and wage power struggles over it, ...


8

Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Chayos (assuming he falls under your definition of "Orthodox") discusses this in the opening section of his Iggeres Bikores. At first astounded at where Rashi conjures this information given that the implication of the gemara is that a targum existed only as far back as the time of Ezra, he concludes that perhaps what Rashi (and others ...


7

No edition of the Torah I have seen has included the commentaries M'tzudas David or M'tzudas Tziyon, but that does not prove anything. However, the author of both, in his introduction says the following, implying that the commentary is written specifically on (and beginning with) the N'vi'im (text is from this paper on the commentaries and the translation is ...


7

You may also want to look into a commentary that's more at the "macro" level. That is, a text which considers a couple of big questions per parasha and then exams the many answers to those questions from the commentators. A famous one that I recommend is Nehama Leibowitz: New Studies in the Weekly Parasha (7 volume set) Amazon source for English ...


7

The gemara in Sanhedrin 8a deals with bnos Tzelophchad. The first opinion holds that Moshe forgot the halacha as a punishment for when he appointed judges and said 'any law too hard for you, bring to me.' as if he were the final word and not Hashem. This is learned from the words Vayakreiv/Vatikr'vun. The second opinion asks on this: Moshe didn't say (by ...


6

There are a number of mitzvot mentioned many times. Shabbat is mentioned at least 8 times that I can think of. I recall that pidyon bechorot is mentioned 7 or 8 times. If you count every exhortation to remember y'tziat Mitzrayim as a separate repetition, that would probably win, or possibly the prohibition of idolatry, which is also one of the more ...


6

Not everyone agrees that Moshe was taught the whole Torah on Mt. Sinai. There is an argument in the Gemara (Chagigah 6A) regarding what Moshe was taught on Mount Sinai (English taken from here): R. Ishmael said: The general directions were given at Sinai and the details in the Tent of Meeting. But R. Akiba said: The general directions and the details ...


6

The Traditional Path of learning Tanach in the Yeshivah is to get a copy of the Mikrot Gedolot, and the Jastrow Dictionary. Sadly, I don't think Mikrot Gedolot has been fully translated into English yet. Mikrot Gedolot, generally contains the following Commentaries, in addition to Rashi and Onkelos. (Of course, there are different versions, with slightly ...


6

You might be thinking of Rashi to Ex. 15:24, where he explains the reflexive form וילונו ("they complained," or more literally, "they were becomplained") by comparing it to French decomplaisant se, where se is similarly reflexive. (He also uses קומפליינ"ט complaint as the translation of מתנודד in Jer. 31:17, and קומפלויינ"ט comploint (?) for ומרודי in Lam. ...


6

A possible reason why we do not name children Yisro. Perhaps the reason we do not name Yisro is due to the fact that Yisro decides to return to Midian and ignores Moshe’s plea to remain with the Jewish people and help guide them into the Land of Israel. http://www.torah.org/learning/rabbiwein/5767/yisro.html


6

It was the entire of the 5 books (the Torah), including the remaining 3 chapters "And it was, when Moses finished writing the words of this Torah in a scroll, until their very completion" then it was placed inside the ark (though some say next to).


5

The first Mikraot Gedolot was printed by Daniel Bromberg in 1516-1517. http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9E%D7%A7%D7%A8%D7%90%D7%95%D7%AA_%D7%92%D7%93%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%AA


5

This page cites two answers: Haman wasn't satisfied with all of the wealth, power, descendants, etc., that he had: "all of this is worthless to me as long as Mordechai the Jew sits at the king's gate" (Esther 5:13). So he ended up building the gallows and going to Achashverosh for permission to hang Mordechai, which led to his humiliation and downfall. ...


5

Genesis 6:4 ד) הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם: Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Radak, Ramban (quoting Rashi and Radak), Chizkuni, and Malbim (on Genesis 8:21) all say that they were giants (ענקים). This ...


5

I'm not sure if Torah Shleimah becuase it's more of an encyclopedia that doesn't separate the commentaries. Otherwise, look at SeforimCenter's Mikraot Gedolot category and compare for yourself -- there are different sets with different focuses. For example, there's Mikraot Gedolot HaBahir which includes Zohar Nigleh, there's a mikraot gedolot of ...


5

I've heard the previous UK Chief Rabbi, Lord Sacks, quote another scholar as saying: "Greek literature is televion; Bible is radio." Generally the Torah has much more emphasis on what's said/heard than what's seen. We have virtually no description of what any Biblical character looked like, unless it occasionally serves to drive the plot ("Joseph was very ...


5

Many people tried to differentiate between "אמר" and "דבר". There are several midrashim and a gemera in Makkos (11a) that identify דיבור as a "harsh" (קשה) way of speaking based on Gen. 42:30, and אמירה is "softer" (רכה). While some (including Torah Temima) take this literally to mean that דיבור and אמירה are different primarily in tone, others (N. H. ...


4

Daas Sofrim explains them as follows: #1 and #2: "Yitzchak blessed Yaakov... and commanded him not to marry a Canaanite wife": these form a continuum - Yaakov is not to marry a Canaanite (a member of an accursed nation) because he had received the blessing. This told Eisav, then, that the blessings that Yaakov had "stolen" weren't just a fluke; Yitzchak is ...



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