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Okay, so I read through the Gemara, and although I see why it could be a little confusing, I think I also understand how to read it so that it makes perfect sense. The Gemara first addresses Shalmei Yachid: "If Shalmei Tzibbur, which do not require Semichah, require Tenufas Chayim, Shalmei Yachid, which do require Semichah, should certainly require Tenufas ...


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This excellent question is asked in Sefer Kritut of Rabbi Shimshon MiKinon, the main book of Klale Hashas. I will copy a couple of statements in English. First you can see the answer in "ot" "יג" but you need first to read "ot" "יב" . I think that for you this is sufficient but we need give an English answer. A rough translation of this passage: In ...


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The rabbis knew that the Earth was curved during the time of the gemara. They also knew about time zones and the effect that it had. The usages of the gates was a metaphorical reference. They could tell it was curved because they could (as an example) see how sailing ships dropped "below the horizon. When dealing with times that would have a different ...



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