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According to Rabbi Munk in his commentary on Vay'chi, it is because Esav was attempting to deny that he had sold his "birthright" completely. That is, he claimed that he had sold the "first born" rights and had sold the (future) settlement of the land of Canaan (to avoid the 400 years of slavery that was still ahead) but not the 50% share of the remaining ...
It is indeed found in the Buber edition of the Tanchumah. In the haaros on the bottom he points to the Yalkut Shimoni in Shir Hashirim chapter 5. And as Matt pointed out its in the Rabba on Shir Hashirim 5:2 as well.
See this other Wikipedia entry that states: Tanhuma bar Abba (Hebrew: תנחומא בר אבא) was a Jewish amora of the 5th generation, one of the foremost haggadists of his time. He was a pupil of Ḥuna bar Abin (Num. R. iii.; Gen. R. xli.), from whom he transmits halakic (Yer. Ḥal. 57d; Shab. 10c) as well as haggadic sayings (Yer. Pe'ah 15b; Shab. 11d; ...
the chasam sofer (shu"t cheilek vov siman tes) qoutes the shaloh answering this question moshe wrote the sifrei torah "bi-hasvoas hakulmos (he wrote with feathers in between each of his hands) which is no better then writing with your weaker hand and that is only a derabanan (which was only institued later) a lot better of a question would be how was it ...
The verse is a verse in Yeshaya 43:12, and the Medrash is from Sifri Devarim psikta 346. אם אתם עדי הרי אני א-ל, ואם אין אתם עדי, כביכול אין אני א-ל
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