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I found here, ref. 2 that it is a Pesikta Rabosi (end of Chapter 35). The statement is not without its questions as the extensive note points out. פסיקתא רבתי: "מה נאוו על ההדים רגלי מבשר. בשעה שהקב"ה גואל את ישראל, שלושה ימים קודם שיבוא המשיח, בא אליהו הנביא ועומד על הרי ישראל ובוכה ומספיד עליהם ואומר: הרי ארץ ישראל עד מתי אתם עומדים בארץ ציה ...


Famously Rabbi Akiva thought that Bar Kochba was the Messiah but I don't know whether Bar Kochba claimed that title for himself.


Here is a list of a number of people who made the claim. Here is some info on historical records of one earlier claimant. The linked website quotes this text from Josephus: There was an Egyptian false prophet that did the Jews more mischief than the former; for he was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got together thirty thousand men ...

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