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There is a Ben Yehoyada in כתובות דף ח ע׳ב who points out that Chazzal made a distinction between נבול פה, and כל המנבל פיו. The first refers to speaking perverse language, the second refers to making perverse gestures with one's tongue.


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Actually, it seems that the spoken language of the time was Aramaic. Even in the Mishna, written while the Jewish people were still in Israel, often when document are quoted, it is usually in Aramaic. Consider, for example, Megillas Taanis, which was written as a calendar of sorts for the nation at large, written by early Tannaim (Shabbos 13a) and ...


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"Bal" is used in Hebrew. You say the word "bal" at least 3 times weekly in the davening: אף תכון תבל בל תמוט from Tehillim 93:1 The word means "lest". It probably has a better usage than the term "al" or "Lo" used before negative mitzvoth, as in the Torah context, the commandment is in the "active" voice - "Don't do ...". When speaking about the ...


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I'll answer a piece of your question in terms of literal definition as well as "historical" usage: "Goy" means "nation" and Jews are referred to as a "goy" in numerous places in the Torah. This week's parsha, perhaps, represents the 1st such "usage" in Breishit 12:2, "An I shall make you into a great nation" (Heb. - "Goy Gadol"). "Nachri" means "stranger" ...


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The substitutions come from censorship of printing over the years. Christian censors were generally more comfortable with עכו"ם - meaning worshiper of stars and constellations, as those Christian censors felt it did not include them. It is not really known in many cases what the original term of the text was due to this censorship, but now that we no longer ...


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The number 70 in the time of Chazal was a "typological number" meant to convey a generic large number, much like people today use the term "millions" even if they do not actually mean that many. Thus, you find in the Talmud many instances of the number 70 which are clearly not meant to be exactly 70: ... המנבל פיו ומוציא דבר נבלה מפיו אפילו נחתם לו גזר ...



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