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The source of the Rambam is the Mishna, Rosh Hashana 2:7, and Rav Ovadia MiBartenura explains (based on the combination of Rav Pappa and Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak's opinions in the Gemara Rosh Hashana 24a) that the declaration is structured according to the verses in Vayikra 23 2 and 44. In verse 44, Moshe declares the holidays, and thus the start of the ...


The Rambam is trying to explain how the end of the year "drifts" across the days of the week. The lunar year (twelve lunar months) is roughly 354.3 days. 350 is divisible by seven (hence "groups of seven"), so the only thing that decides what day of the week the year ends on is the remainder. --- the extra 4.3 days. Thus, if the end of the previous year ...

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