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10

See the Mishna in Chagigah (Perek 1 - Chapter 1) : פרק א - משנה א הַכֹּל חַיָּבִין בָּרְאִיָּה, חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, וְטֻמְטוּם, וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, וְנָשִׁים, וַעֲבָדִים שֶׁאֵינָם מְשֻׁחְרָרִים, הַחִגֵּר, וְהַסּוּמָא, וְהַחוֹלֶה, וְהַזָּקֵן, וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת בְּרַגְלָיו. אֵיזֶהוּ קָטָן, כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִרְכּוֹב ...


8

Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) neither desired nor intended to overthrow the Talmud; he was in fact an observant Jew. Rav Hirsch (1808 – 1888) "praised Mendelssohn as ‘a most brilliant and respected personality whose commanding influence has dominated developments to this day.’" In his article "Mendelssohn in Nineteenth Century Rabbinic Literature," Meir ...


7

This is pretty common in old* Siddurim. You can see omitting just ועל בריתך שחתמת בבשרינו on Hebrewbooks here here here here and here and on Hebrewmanuscripts.org manuscript #747. You can see omitting that phrase plus ועל תורתך שלימדתנו on Hebrewbooks here and on Hebrewmanuscripts.org manuscript #1762. This siddur is not clear how much exactly to omit. ...


6

According to Hebrew Wikipedia he received Semicha from the Chacham Tzvi. קיבל סמיכה מאת החכם צבי Still following the trail at Hebrew WP, he, in turn, learned from his grandfather, R' Ephraim Hakohen (אפרים הכהן), author of the commentary Machaneh Ephraim on the Torah. He, in turn, learned from R' Moshe Lima (משה לימא), author of the commentary ...


6

The Italian nusach Bnei Roma omits ועל בריתך שחסמת בבשרנו for women.


5

In terms of the history of division of Aliyot, you should see Ilana Katzenellenbogen's survey article in Sinai 119 (1998), pp. 224-45. She looks at 33 different division customs from the last 1000 years from around the Jewish world and compiles a ~10 page chart with all the different variants from "our common custom" (OCC). Her conclusions are (summarized ...


5

I Maccabees 6:49-53 talks about a siege in which the Jews were short of food because of shmita.


4

There was a Tzeduki Sanhedrin in the times of Shimon ben Shatach, but he got them to disband, and the day this happened (28th of Teves) was declared a Yom Tov. (Megillas Taanis) According to the Eshel Avraham there, this 'sanhedrin' of Tzedukim is mentioned in maseches Sanhedrin 52a, see Rashi at the end of the mishna. This is also the 'sanhedrin' that ...


4

Chananya ben Azur was a prophet (until he went bad), and he was a Givoni, who are a nation of converts (Rashi on Yirmiyah 28:6).


4

Pirkei Avot 5:5: עֲשָׂרָה נִסִּים נַעֲשׂו לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ... וְלֹא אָמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ צַר לִי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁאָלִין בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם: Ten miracles were performed for our forefathers in the Temple: (10) A person never said to his fellow, 'It is too crowded for me to sleep overnight in Jerusalem.' Thus, there was room to house all the ...


4

SimpleToRemember.com has a mesorah chain that goes up through the RaM"A. From Rashi to the RaM"A looks like this: Rav Shlomo Yitzchaki - ‘“Rashi’” (1105) R’ Shmuel ben Meir (Rashbam) (1174) R’ Yaakov ben Meir (Rabbenu Tam) (1171) Eliezer Me-Metz (1175) Rokeach (1238) R’ Yitzchak of Vienna (Ohr Zaruah) Rav Meir of Rothenberg ...


3

Chaim Sheyaish Bahem - page 166 mentions this story. At the end of the story the source mentioned is תולדות הנודע ביהודה page 138. Rabbi Amnon Yitzchak says this story in the name of the Avodas Hagershuni.


3

There are a number of works about Acher, from the historical-fiction to the scholarly and Hebrew. In addition to the books I mentioned in the comments above, various books by Robert Chazan discuss the medieval figures you mention.


3

According to the website IsraelDailyPicture, (which presents historical photos of Israel with explanations) those are memorial notices. Two such pictures can be seen here, and the text (names in the form X ben Y) is readable in at least one. Further, in this post from the same site, it says, "The darkness of the writing suggests that it was written ...


2

Complex question; Rabbi Aaron Rakeffet-Rothkoff discusses it at length. Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch thought of Mendelssohn as a model neo-Orthodox Jew, while the Chasam Sofer warned his students against reading the works of "Moses [of] Desau." Rabbi Rakeffet concludes: the fact that none of Mendelssohn's children died as observant Jews doesn't prove ...


2

(The Talmud is aware of the Hasmonean civil war, by the way; it's mentioned in passing in Bava Kama 82b: כשצרו בית חשמונאי זה על זה היה הורקנוס מבפנים ואריסטובלוס מבחוץ) As for Pompey, it's in Sforno's commentary to Deuteronomy 28:14: Deuteronomy Chapter 28 contains a very lengthy, depressing list of horrible things that will happen to the Jewish people ...


1

Here is an image (from a late 14th century - early 15th century manuscript of the Tur) of the beginning of Siman 89 (although this manuscript seems to be from before the simanim were labeled, but you can compare it to siman 89 here), where the heading for הלכות תפילה should appear. Here is the beginning of Siman 61, where the heading for הלכות קריאת שמע ...


1

Yes, society in general kept sh'mita (toward the end of the period of second bes hamikdash) to the extent that lenders found themselves unable to collect on loans after sh'mita had passed. (That's why they stopped lending — though arguably that can be called not keeping sh'mita — which is why the p'rozbul was invented.)


1

The Sefer Hachinuch (13th cent.) seems to refer to students of Jewish mysticism as "the mekubalim" (mitava 98): משרשי המצוה. שצונו השם יתברך להיות נר דולק בבית המקדש להגדלת הבית לכבוד ולתפארת בעיני הרואים, כי כן דרך בני איש להתכבד בבתיהם בנרות דולקים, וכל ענין ההגדלה בו כדי שיכניס האדם בלבו כשיראהו מורא וענוה. וכבר אמרנו (במצוה טז) כי במעשה הטוב תכשר ...



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