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1

Rambam writes fairly emphatically in a responsum that Torah study depends not upon the Hebrew language, but upon the intent of the words: ואין הפרש שהבין אותו הענין מלשון קודש או מלשון ערבי או מלשון ארמי הכונה היא הבנת ענינים בכל לשון שיהיה There is no difference if he understood the matter in L'shon Hakodesh (Hebrew), or in Arabic, or in Aramaic. ...


2

The encyclopedia talmudica quotes a Teshuvas Hageonim which says the reason it is called הפטרה because during the Krias Hatorah it is forbidden to talk, but when we read the haftorah we are "released" - פטר from the prohibition. Thus the reason for the name.


2

Wikipedia explains that the name comes from the fact that during the time when one was not allowed to read from the Torah they read the Haftora instead and thus were Patur from reading the Torah. מקור קריאת ההפטרה, מובא ב"אבודרהם" (בסדר שחרית של שבת, ובלבוש ובב"ח או"ח ס' רפ"ד וב"משנה ברורה" שם) שבאחת התקופות גזרו האויבים שאסור לקרוא בתורה. וכן היא ...


4

See the bottom of p. 3 – p. 4 of this article: Avudraha”m explains that it does come from the meaning “to exempt”. At the time when the Haftarah was first instituted (some theories state that it was in effect during the period of the first Temple), Jews were prohinited from reading the Torah. Thus, reading from the prophets exempted them from reading from ...


1

I am not 100% sure but isn't it this - נכסי צאן ברזל?


6

It's a Yiddish abbreviation for Kein Ayin Hora - or in Hebrew Bli Ayin Hara. Simply stated without the evil eye; we're not discussing [something] in order to get [it] punished due to our jealousy.


4

והוכיחה בדברים ואינו משגחת עליו means he rebuked her with words and she pays him no heed.


2

The complete line in that meditation before putting on the tallit says, "May it be considered before You that I accomplished this mitzvah with all of its details (p'rateha) and exact instructions (dikdukeiha) and its proper intentions (kav'nateiha) and the 613 mitzvot that depend on it." Two of the words in that list are masculine (p'ratim and dikdukim), ...


0

Shmura ("guarded") matzah (Hebrew מַצָּה שְׁמוּרָה maṣṣā šəmūrā) is made from grain that has been under special supervision from the time it was harvested to ensure that no fermentation has occurred, and that it is suitable for eating on the first night of Passover.


2

The Arizal (Pri Eitz Chaim, Shaar Mikrah Kodesh, ch. 4) related it to the idea "Peh sach" - "a mouth converses" (as noted by sam in a comment). This can also be connected to the mitzvah of magid. See also: http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pagefeed/hebrewbooks_org_52839_131.pdf : The Arizal taught that the word "Pesach" is composed of the words peh sach, ...



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