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14

As I understand it, the markings of these shevas follow the rules given by R' Shlomo Zalman Hanau, an important 18th-century grammarian. In his system, every sheva following a tenuah kallah (a "light" vowel, i.e., one that substitutes for a sheva or a chataf vowel) is vocalized; examples include מַלְכֵי (since the independent form is מְלָכִים) and נֶעֶרְמוּ ...


14

The Avudraham discusses this at length. He brings several different classification methods offered by different people. It seems that each classification method covers a large percentage of the cases, but there are some exceptions. The Abudraham then discusses some of the exceptions. First he brings the opinion of Rabbeinu Tam (brought in yydl's answer): ...


14

The Mahara"l of Prauge, in his commentary to Megilas Esther called Ohr Chadash, (after offering the more basic suggestion that this denotes something Mordechai would do on a constant basis), explains that even when Mordechai had an option to use an alternate route, he would make a point of going in front of Haman and not bowing down. The Ohr Hachayim ...


12

The short answer is that modern yeshiva students recite it with a tzeirei because this is brought in the Mishna Berura which has become a very popular sefer for "p'sak". The Mishna Berura brought it because of the weight he gives to the Pri Megadim, who quotes this version in the name of R' Hanau. A more interesting and comprehensive background with ...


12

The following information is recorded on the Mechon Mamre website: בתנ"כים שלנו יש גם סימני הפרשייות {פ} {ס} {ר} {ש} שהם מסמנים פרשה פתוחה, פרשה סתומה, סוף שורה בשירות מסויימות, ושורה ריקה (או שורות ריקות בסוף ספר).‏ My translation: In our Tanakhs there are also [the following] disjunctive symbols: פ,‎ ס,‎ ר,‎ ש, which stand for ...


12

I would recommend William Wickes' treatise on the Taamei Emet. You are describing a revia mugrash, as distinct from a revia gadol or revia katon. It is indeed a disjunctive accent: To really understand its function, you should familiarize yourself with Wickes' description of the continuous dichotomy. But the pasuk is first divided at the etnachta (or ...


11

The original siddur did not include a version for women. Changes to the format for women began later on. R. Jacob Emden (in his siddur commentary) suggested emending the morning blessings for women, but didn't recommend it. Chid"a (Avodat haKodesh 2 5 22) allowed the changes, along with Eshel Avraham (the Buchacher, OC 46 4) and Rivvos Efraim (1 37 2) ...


10

Mishne Halachos, "a summary of halachos" like in Mishne Tora, "a summary of Torah". The root is shin-nun-he: it's related to shana, "repeated". I've heard that after he allowed certain eruvin that R' Moshe Feinstein did not, people jokingly (and with quite a lack of k'vod hatora) referred to his books as M'shane Halachos, "changer of halachos". The root is ...


10

Malbim (to Ps. 69:19) draws the following distinction: גאל means to redeem someone or something because of your relationship. (The cases in Lev. 25 where a person has to sell his property, or even himself into slavery, and is "redeemed" by himself or a close relative, are all described with this root.) פדה means to redeem someone or something because of ...


10

Grammatically, I guess "nafkei minah" would have to be the correct plural if there are two practical differences emerging from one distinction, or "nafkei minayhu" if they're completely disjoint. (See Avodah Zarah 28b and Shabbos 23b, respectively, although in neither place is the expression being used in the sense of "a practical difference or outcome.") ...


10

No, it doesn't change the meaning. The letter bes that starts that word appears with a dot in it usually, but without one after a word (in the same phrase) that ends in an open syllable. (Usually.) The pronunciation changes between these two forms, but not the meaning. It's not unique to this word, either, but true of all words that start with a bes, gimel, ...


10

This is the standard "Vav ha-hipuch" of Biblical grammar, which reverses the future tense to the past. "Yikra" == "he will call." "Ve-yikra" == "and he will call." "VA-yikra" == "[and] he called." (It's actually unclear whether the vav hahipuch also functions as an "and." Most translators include the "and", though Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's Living Torah ...


10

From Soncino's intro to Seder Moed: "It might be observed that the designation 'Mo'ed' is in the singular, as distinct from the plural forms used to designate the other Orders, e.g., Nashim, Nezikin, etc. It has been suggested that the singular is here specially used to avoid the confusion that might arise through the employment of the plural Seder Mo'adim ...


10

From what I can tell, either way you accent this word is probably fine. My understanding, based on Biblical grammar My understanding is that the accent in this case goes on the 'mo' syllable, due to the rule of "nasog achor." This rule says that when multi-syllabic Word A is followed (without disjunctive cantillation) by Word B, and Word B has an accent ...


10

Ohr Chadash - Maharal M'Prag asks this question and answers that Mordechai intentionally made sure to be in the areas where Haman was going to show he was not going to bow down. לא יכרע, זהו אף שהיה יכול מרדכי ללכת בדרך אחרת שלא יהיה פוגע בו ולא יכעס המן


8

I have a good friend who says "Shalom Alecha" to me during kiddush levana. In fact this is the nusach brought in the by the Rama in the Shulchan Aruch (OC 426:2) and it's also in the Tur (OC 426). (Note that the Bach there comments that this is the proper version of the text.) I always smile and respond "Aleichem Shalom."


8

The Gemara (Sotah 10b) says that this was his reward for resisting the advances of Potiphar's wife and thereby sanctifying Hashem's name. Elsewhere (ibid. 36b) it also explains that the addition of this letter (with the extra spiritual powers it conferred on him) enabled Y(eh)osef to master the seventy languages that he needed to know in order to be able to ...


8

Sounds like it could be a case of overregularization of the copula+participle pattern found commonly in Chaza"l to express habituals (e.g. הוי מקבל את כל האדם בסבר פנים יפות). I have no historical basis for showing this spill-over to have occurred. Perhaps it is simply a shortcut for code-switchers using a copula in a more familiar language to bear the ...


8

Literally it means "He (i.e. Hashem) should straighten your energy." It means that Hashem should guide you in choosing actions that will allow your energy to flow on a straight path from its source on high down to you. It is correctly pronounced "Yi/Ya/sher Ko/cha/cha". Its Yiddish pronunciation is "Ya/shi/koi/yach".


8

The expression is taken from the Talumd (Shabbat 87a and several other locations). The sage Resh Lakish expands the word "אשר" to the now ubiquitous "ישר כחך" . You can see from the following Talmudic excerpt (Shabbat 87a) that the original use was to validate Moshe Rabeinu's action. It would seem to me that current usage is quite the same. When one ...


8

The root is מול, sometimes considered a biliteral root, מל. Compare קם. There are cases in the Semitic languages where a full consonant appears in the middle of such roots to "fill them out" to the usual triliteral form. Compare Aramaic רהט "run" (Hebrew רץ).


8

In Aramaic, the suffix "ey h" means "his." In this context, the antecedent is God.


8

The source for this recitation is Tractate Soferim (20:4). Aramaic was a major lingustic influence on halachic literature in Babylonia during the Geonic period when that tractate was composed, and in Aramaic the plural form ends with a nun rather than a mem.


8

I'm fascinated by the midrashic answers presented for this! Are there more? From a scholarly perspective, the increased use of the participle in place of the narrative waw-consecutive imperfect (wayiqtol) form is a classic feature of Late Biblical Hebrew (LBH). To unpack that a bit... What Modern Hebrew treats as the "present tense" (words like molekh, ...


8

The entire prayer, except for the last line, is in Aramaic. צלי, צלא, or צלו are different constructs of the word meaning "pray". צלותהון means "their prayers". As for the root, I believe it is likely correct that it is צלא, though a part of me wants to go digging in my old Aramaic text books to rule out the possibility that it is צלי. I have never heard ...


8

HaMaor Volume 46 Number 3 Page 26 says that since all the Yomim Tovim are going to be nullified besides Purim when Moshiach comes therefore it is called Moed in singular form as the only Mesechta remaining will be Megila. Otzar Kol Minhagei Yishurin Siman 7 * note says that since the names of the Shisha Sidrei Mishna are based on the Pasuk והיה אמונת עתיך ...


8

The form 'כְּתוּבָה' certainly exists, as you state; it is the passive participle of the root כתב, and means "written", as in: "נבואתו כתובה על הקיר" = "his prophecy is written on the wall". However, this is not the same as the noun which designates a "marriage contract". Although there are exceptions, for the most part nouns with specific meanings are not ...


8

The Aruch HaShulchan O.C. 207:2 defends and prefers the Mishna Brurah's nusach. The argument for the Mem is that in several places in the Torah we find Nefesh followed by a masculine verb, because when referring to the whole person, of which the Nefesh is a part, then the masculine should be used. Only when refering to the Nefesh distinctly as the part of a ...


7

One of the Chassidic masters (Bnei Yissoschor, perhaps?) says that the deficient spelling of Yerushalayim in Tanach hints to the phrase של רומי -- "[currently in the domain] of Rome" -- which has the same letters as ירושלם. I heard in the name of Rav Moshe Wolfson shlit"a (mashgiach of Torah Vodaas) that in Megillas Esther we find Yerushalayim spelled out in ...


7

Because some names can be analyzed, or re-analyzed as theophoric names. A theophoric name is one which contains the name of Hashem. Often, these names begin with Yeho- or end with -yahu, and Yo can be a shorthand for it. It is possible that Yosef was not initially intended as such a theophoric name (depending on what "ushmi Hashem lo nadati lahem" means). ...



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