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Chazal identify Rome with Edom such as in Eicha Rabbasi (parsha 4): שישי ושמחי בת אדום. זו קיסרין ורומי However, the Parshablog here cites (and translates) Shadal as follows: And know that Edom mentioned in the Torah and other holy books {of Tanach} refers to the nation which dwells between the Reed Sea and the Dead Sea, and it was never the intent ...


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Note that the definition of the seventy nations occurred in the Dor Hahaflagah (dispersion after the Migdal Bavel). As a result, the nations of Moav, Ammon, Yishmael, and Edom would not have been in existence at that time. I have seen references to the Vilna Gaon, such as in Nefesh Hachaim and this reference that the reference to ruling over 35 each, means ...



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