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They would take out a separate Sefer Torah and read the curses, in addition to the standard weekly parshah. Source: I heard it directly from a well-known rav, who based it on the Rambam Hil. Tefillah, 13:1-2.


The first day of the seventh month is the holiday Rosh Hashanah. It is known as the day when the world was created, and is also the Day of Judgement. It is still a festive holiday, with many unique customs. You can learn more about it on Wikipedia, or by browsing Mi Yodeya's 90+ Rosh Hashanah questions.


Exodus Rabah 51:3, (third paragraph in your link) מהו משכן שני פעמים א"ר שמואל בר מרתא שנתמשכן שני פעמים על ידיהם זהו שאנשי כנסת הגדולה אומרים (נחמיה א) חבול חבלנו לך ולא שמרנו את המצות ואת החוקים ואת המשפטים מהו חבול חבלנו לך הוי שנתמשכן ב' פעמים ואין חבול אלא משכון שנאמר (דברים כד) לא יחבול רחים ורכב לכך כתיב אלה פקודי המשכן משכן העדות ב' ...


In the Artscroll Divrei HaYamim bet page 473 (as well as Artscroll Sefer Ezra ad loc) he cites the Ramban on Megillah 11b who indicates that not all of the keilim were returned during the Koresh proclamation (contrary to Rashi's reading of Ezra 1:11).


I once heard this question asked at an Arachim function. The answer given was that although Koresh had the utensils returned, not all of them made it back and therefore Achashveirosh used the ones that he still had. I have not seen a written source for this though.


Ezra was comparable to Moshe, and would have given the Torah had Moshe not preceded him, so it is not unreasonable to say that his actions were legitimate. Anyway, it is also seen from a posuk in Yehoshua, in Yevomos 89b.


The Yalkut Shimoni mentions that he is Hamans son in עמוס 545. The Maharsha (Megilla 16a) quotes this in the name of the Targum. The Hagaas Vehaaros there from Oz Vehadar write that although it is implied there (9:14) it does not seem to be written there explicitly.

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