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9

From TheSanhedrin.org: Etymologically, Sanhedrin is a late Hebrew representation of the Greek word synedrion συνέδριον meaning "sitting together" as a legislative assembly or Senate.


7

The earliest source1 seems to be from the ספר הפליאה - ספר הקנה who writes: ויש פירושים רבים שנעלמו מעיני כל חי ועתיד אליהו הנביא לפרשם וזהו מה שרמזו רז"ל בשבעה מסכתות תיקו "תשבי "יתרץ "קושיות "ובעיות. 1Before 1390, according to linked Wikipedia article


7

There's a Sefer by that name from 90 years ago - תרפג/1923. A search of HebrewBooks.org seems to show that the term was not used [much] earlier. A search of Toras Emeth Software indicates that it's not used in any of the classics (Mishna, Gemara, Rambam, Shulchan Aruch) and the earliest it finds is from the קיצור ש''ע ילקוט יוסף - the 2nd half of the 20th ...


7

Jastrow supports Yishai's answer, that "סנהדרין" derives from the Greek συνέδριον: ‎‫סַנְהֶדְרִין,‬ ‫סַנְהֶדְרֵי‬ f. (also pl.) (συνέδριον) Sanhedrin, the supreme council of the Jews; ס‫'‬ גדולה the Great S., consisting of seventy-one members; ס‫'‬ קטנה the Small S., a judicial court of twenty-three. Snh. I, 6. Ib. ראויה לס‫'‬ fit to be a seat of the ...


6

…that Qayin derived from the 1st millenium BC South Arabic word Qyn, and that Cain is not a name old enough in Bible times of the 2nd millenium. Is it plausible that this is in fact a correct approach? No, it's implausible, as Cain lived well before that and even the Torah that mentions him was given us before that.


6

From Webster Dictionary Latin tropus, from Greek tropos turn, way, manner, style, trope, from trepein to turn First Known Use: 1533 The most common Hebrew term I have heard for this is טעמי המקרא. Interesting to note that both terms seem to focus on different aspects of what "trope" is or does. The Latin root has a definition meaning "style", and ...


5

In maseches Sanhedrin chapter one, mishna 6, the word is presented as sanhedrei. The Tiferes Yisroel #43 quotes the Aruch who writes this is the Latin version of the name. He also quotes the Maharil as saying Chazzal chose this word because in notrikin it stands for Sonei Hadras Din. The actual words of the Maharil are found in the Likutei Maharil #6 אמר ...


4

עם הארץ literally means "people of the land" or natives. In Avraham's time the natives were the Bnei Cheis, but in the time of Ezra, when the Jews returned from Babylonia to the land of Israel, עם הארץ referred to the current natives, many of whom were Jews who were not scrupulous in their observance of mitzvos. In fact, many of them intermarried ...


3

Another source earlier than the Tosafos Yom Tov is the work Tishbi by R. Eliya Habachur of the 15th-16th century who disputes the idea here.


3

from Menachem Mendel: The earliest apparent source for using the term ḥallah in connection with the bread that is eaten on Shabbat can be found in the 15th c. German work Leket Yosher (p. 49) [See John Cooper’s Eat and Be Satisfied: A Social History of Jewish Food]: וזכורני שבכל ע”ש עושין לו ג’ חלות דקות הנילושות בביצים ושמן ומעט מים. וחלה ...


3

Certainly appears to be a term of recent vintage. R. Chaim Ozer Grodzensky used the term in a 1907 teshuvah to Australia, although he uses it to refer to conversion law, and not Hilkhot Niddah (Achiezer 3:27): הנה שמחתי לראות מכתב מנהלי עדת ישרון בק' פעסט כי לא אלמן ישראל גם בקצה ארץ הגולה אוסטרליא הנדחה והנעזבה מישוב ישראלי גדול מאנשים ישרים שומרי משמרת ...


3

Hagahos Yavetz there says he thinks it means nature, and it is from here that the 'chachmei teva' took the expression. He says there is no other instance of this word in this usage. In Tel Torah the coin explanation is given. He couldn't tell the difference between all the coins in Bavel because they were all similar, kol shekein (how much more so) he ...


3

Nachal Eshkol at the end of his introduction to Sefer HaEshkol says that מחילה comes from the root חלל, which he says means to weaken or loosen: טעמו להחליש ולרפה העוון כהוראת שורש חלל וחללה שטעמו נקוב וחלול, נתרוקן ונחלש, ונתגזר מזה שם כלי שיר 'חליל' בהיותו ריק וחלול ונקרא הגוף במותו חלל כשנתרוקן מנפש ורוח מחילה is accordingly to minimize the sin, as ...


2

In the Chumash, we find "Malki-tzedek, king of Shalem", as well as Avraham referring to the place of Akeidat Yitzchak as "Hashem Yireh." The midrash says those names were combined, "Yireh+Shalem" -> "Yerushalayim." Note that in Aramaic, it's pronounced "Yerushlame", which fits with how it's written Biblically -- no yud before the final mem. However in ...


2

"Chajes" is not the English version of the name, but the German version, which would point to a pronunciation of "חַיֶס". In Hebrew, though, there's a vav, which it seems was pronounced as a cholam. But I can't find any explicit evidence for this. If you look at his Iggeres Bikores republished in 1853 by Jacob Brull, you'll see the German version "Chajes" ...


2

I have usually heard the name pronounced as stated in the Wikipedia article, especially in academic settings. Whenever I hear the pronunciation like 'khee-us' I assume that it's because people feel uncomfortable giving an achron a last name that can mean 'animals'. A few people have speculated over the origin and meaning of the name. One source that I can ...


2

Kittel is German and means "smock, overall". The ultimate etymology of the German word is debated. See this: http://www.dwds.de/?qu=kittel


2

Other answers have already noted that this comes from the Greek συνέδριον ("synedrion"). I'll add more detail: That word comes from the Greek σύνεδρος ("sitting together"), from σύν ("with", also found in e.g. English synergy and synchronize) and ἕδρα ("seat", also found in English cathedral and distantly related to English sit).


2

R. Aryeh Kaplan's commentary on the verse (2:8), from The Living Torah, states that Eden means "Delight in Hebrew." The Meam Lo'ez (which Kaplan helped translate from the Ladino) explains that "the Torah informs us that God planted a delightful place in the east." The latest edition of the Encyclopedia Judaica essentially states this as well. It discusses ...


1

The Rashash on Rashi there (Shabbos 23b d.h. mishum shalom beiso) explains the reference to mean marital harmony and connects it to the mishah in bameh madlikin about the wife lighting the ner shabbos and the fact that beiso is used to refer to a wife, ayin sham.


1

See this discussion. Some scholars have claimed that the Zohar's use of Teva to mean "nature" is anachronistic and does not reflect Talmudic usage. In trying to debunk this claim. Rabbi Miller tries to find instances in the Mishnah and Talmud where it means nature. But if it means coinage, then there is no proof. The other answer here points out Hagahos ...


1

The Torah clearly explains why Chava chose this name for her oldest kid: וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת ה' ‏ "Chaya gave birth and called him Cain; [Hebrew for] I have created [Konithi] a person with Gcd". Why would you think it's plausible that Chava named him something else? What ...


1

Wikipedia states: Traditionally, the favoured derivation of the name "Eden" was from the Akkadian edinnu, derived from a Sumerian word meaning "plain" or "steppe". Eden is now believed to be more closely related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered." The Hebrew term is translated "pleasure" in Sarah's secret saying in Genesis ...


1

I assumed it is based on the word הלך, going. Much as we would say inn English, 'I'm going with him' as a term of agreement. I checked Jastrow and he seems to take this route as well. First writing הלך as the שורש, than comparing it to מנהג and translating it accordingly. Practice, adopted opinion, rule. He does the same for הלכתא. He even quotes a Targum ...


1

From Webster's dictionary: Origin of KITTEL Yiddish kitel, from Middle High German kitel, kietel cotton or hempen outer garment, probably from Arabic qutn cotton I've never seen a hemp kittel. Isn't hemp the stuff they USED to wrap etrogim (or "esroygim" in yeshivish) hat "invented" the "foam"? I would imagine a hemp kittel would be somewhat ...


1

Yalqut Shim'oni cites Masekhet Sotah (13B) which states (English, Original): א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן לצאת ולבוא בדברי תורה מלמד שנסתתמו ממנו שערי חכמה R. Samuel b. Nahmani said in the name of R. Jonathan: [It means] to ‘go out and come in’ with words of Torah, thus indicating that the gates of wisdom were closed off to him.



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