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9

From TheSanhedrin.org: Etymologically, Sanhedrin is a late Hebrew representation of the Greek word synedrion συνέδριον meaning "sitting together" as a legislative assembly or Senate.


7

The earliest source1 seems to be from the ספר הפליאה - ספר הקנה who writes: ויש פירושים רבים שנעלמו מעיני כל חי ועתיד אליהו הנביא לפרשם וזהו מה שרמזו רז"ל בשבעה מסכתות תיקו "תשבי "יתרץ "קושיות "ובעיות. 1Before 1390, according to linked Wikipedia article


7

Jastrow supports Yishai's answer, that "סנהדרין" derives from the Greek συνέδριον: ‎‫סַנְהֶדְרִין,‬ ‫סַנְהֶדְרֵי‬ f. (also pl.) (συνέδριον) Sanhedrin, the supreme council of the Jews; ס‫'‬ גדולה the Great S., consisting of seventy-one members; ס‫'‬ קטנה the Small S., a judicial court of twenty-three. Snh. I, 6. Ib. ראויה לס‫'‬ fit to be a seat of the ...


7

There's a Sefer by that name from 90 years ago - תרפג/1923. A search of HebrewBooks.org seems to show that the term was not used [much] earlier. A search of Toras Emeth Software indicates that it's not used in any of the classics (Mishna, Gemara, Rambam, Shulchan Aruch) and the earliest it finds is from the קיצור ש''ע ילקוט יוסף - the 2nd half of the 20th ...


6

The Ibn Ezra (cited by the Malbim as being in Parshas Bo, but I assume he means to refer to his comments to Shemos 3:15) explains that ה' צבא-ות refers to Hashem being the upholder of the צבא השמים. The Radak to Yeshaya 6:3 says that it refers to the armies on High and below. The Malbim to Yeshaya 6:3 (you can see it here), in explaining the line ק' ק' ק' ...


6

…that Qayin derived from the 1st millenium BC South Arabic word Qyn, and that Cain is not a name old enough in Bible times of the 2nd millenium. Is it plausible that this is in fact a correct approach? No, it's implausible, as Cain lived well before that and even the Torah that mentions him was given us before that.


5

In maseches Sanhedrin chapter one, mishna 6, the word is presented as sanhedrei. The Tiferes Yisroel #43 quotes the Aruch who writes this is the Latin version of the name. He also quotes the Maharil as saying Chazzal chose this word because in notrikin it stands for Sonei Hadras Din. The actual words of the Maharil are found in the Likutei Maharil #6 אמר ...


4

According to an interview, the name comes because the publisher made fancy ketubot: Y.H. [interviewer]: If I remember correctly, ArtScroll started off publishing fancy high-end kesubos… N[osson] S[cherman of ArtScroll]: Yes, ArtScroll’s name came from that. Meir Zlotowitz had a company that was involved in such printing.


3

Another source earlier than the Tosafos Yom Tov is the work Tishbi by R. Eliya Habachur of the 15th-16th century who disputes the idea here.


3

from Menachem Mendel: The earliest apparent source for using the term ḥallah in connection with the bread that is eaten on Shabbat can be found in the 15th c. German work Leket Yosher (p. 49) [See John Cooper’s Eat and Be Satisfied: A Social History of Jewish Food]: וזכורני שבכל ע”ש עושין לו ג’ חלות דקות הנילושות בביצים ושמן ומעט מים. וחלה ...


3

Hagahos Yavetz there says he thinks it means nature, and it is from here that the 'chachmei teva' took the expression. He says there is no other instance of this word in this usage. In Tel Torah the coin explanation is given. He couldn't tell the difference between all the coins in Bavel because they were all similar, kol shekein (how much more so) he ...


3

Certainly appears to be a term of recent vintage. R. Chaim Ozer Grodzensky used the term in a 1907 teshuvah to Australia, although he uses it to refer to conversion law, and not Hilkhot Niddah (Achiezer 3:27): הנה שמחתי לראות מכתב מנהלי עדת ישרון בק' פעסט כי לא אלמן ישראל גם בקצה ארץ הגולה אוסטרליא הנדחה והנעזבה מישוב ישראלי גדול מאנשים ישרים שומרי משמרת ...


3

As mentioned in yydl's answer, the Hebrew noun "מחזור" ("machzor") means "cycle" in English. This is the usage found in Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 6-8) and other midrashic literature. According to the Hebrew Wikipedia article "מחזור תפילה", citing Daniel Goldschmidt's preface to Shadal's Introduction to the Machzor of the Community of Rome, this term was ...


2

Kittel is German and means "smock, overall". The ultimate etymology of the German word is debated. See this: http://www.dwds.de/?qu=kittel


2

R. Aryeh Kaplan's commentary on the verse (2:8), from The Living Torah, states that Eden means "Delight in Hebrew." The Meam Lo'ez (which Kaplan helped translate from the Ladino) explains that "the Torah informs us that God planted a delightful place in the east." The latest edition of the Encyclopedia Judaica essentially states this as well. It discusses ...


2

Other answers have already noted that this comes from the Greek συνέδριον ("synedrion"). I'll add more detail: That word comes from the Greek σύνεδρος ("sitting together"), from σύν ("with", also found in e.g. English synergy and synchronize) and ἕδρα ("seat", also found in English cathedral and distantly related to English sit).


2

Wikipedia says the following: In 1975,[1] Zlotowitz, a graduate of Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem, was director of a high-end graphics studio in New York.[2] The firm, named ArtScroll Studios,[1] produced brochures,[3] invitations, awards and ketubahs.[1]… The name ArtScroll was chosen for the publishing company to emphasize the visual ...


1

The Sefer Hachinuch (13th cent.) seems to refer to students of Jewish mysticism as "the mekubalim" (mitava 98): משרשי המצוה. שצונו השם יתברך להיות נר דולק בבית המקדש להגדלת הבית לכבוד ולתפארת בעיני הרואים, כי כן דרך בני איש להתכבד בבתיהם בנרות דולקים, וכל ענין ההגדלה בו כדי שיכניס האדם בלבו כשיראהו מורא וענוה. וכבר אמרנו (במצוה טז) כי במעשה הטוב תכשר ...


1

Etymologically, the verb כתר (from whence we get the Hebrew noun, כתר, meaning "crown") means to surround, or encircle. In the Aramaic pael (as perhaps in Job 36:2) it can also have the added nuance of expecting something, or lying in wait. The derived noun, כֹתרת, appears in Tanakh in reference to the head of a pillar (so, for example, 1 Kings 7:16 and ...


1

The Rashash on Rashi there (Shabbos 23b d.h. mishum shalom beiso) explains the reference to mean marital harmony and connects it to the mishah in bameh madlikin about the wife lighting the ner shabbos and the fact that beiso is used to refer to a wife, ayin sham.


1

See this discussion. Some scholars have claimed that the Zohar's use of Teva to mean "nature" is anachronistic and does not reflect Talmudic usage. In trying to debunk this claim. Rabbi Miller tries to find instances in the Mishnah and Talmud where it means nature. But if it means coinage, then there is no proof. The other answer here points out Hagahos ...


1

The Torah clearly explains why Chava chose this name for her oldest kid: וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת ה' ‏ "Chaya gave birth and called him Cain; [Hebrew for] I have created [Konithi] a person with Gcd". Why would you think it's plausible that Chava named him something else? What ...


1

Wikipedia states: Traditionally, the favoured derivation of the name "Eden" was from the Akkadian edinnu, derived from a Sumerian word meaning "plain" or "steppe". Eden is now believed to be more closely related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered." The Hebrew term is translated "pleasure" in Sarah's secret saying in Genesis ...


1

I assumed it is based on the word הלך, going. Much as we would say inn English, 'I'm going with him' as a term of agreement. I checked Jastrow and he seems to take this route as well. First writing הלך as the שורש, than comparing it to מנהג and translating it accordingly. Practice, adopted opinion, rule. He does the same for הלכתא. He even quotes a Targum ...


1

It is a common talmudic expression (see e.g. Brachos 6b).


1

From Webster's dictionary: Origin of KITTEL Yiddish kitel, from Middle High German kitel, kietel cotton or hempen outer garment, probably from Arabic qutn cotton I've never seen a hemp kittel. Isn't hemp the stuff they USED to wrap etrogim (or "esroygim" in yeshivish) hat "invented" the "foam"? I would imagine a hemp kittel would be somewhat ...


1

Yalqut Shim'oni cites Masekhet Sotah (13B) which states (English, Original): א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן לצאת ולבוא בדברי תורה מלמד שנסתתמו ממנו שערי חכמה R. Samuel b. Nahmani said in the name of R. Jonathan: [It means] to ‘go out and come in’ with words of Torah, thus indicating that the gates of wisdom were closed off to him.



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