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3

The Rashba (Toras HaBayis, Bayis 4, Shaar 1, 11b. Also in his chiddushim on kiddushin 73a d"h mamzer vaday) says it's a Torah principle. The Ran (Kiddushin 15b according to the Rif pages) also holds it's a Torah principle. The Rambam (Perek 12 in hilchos tumas hames, halacha 12) holds it's a principle from the Rabbis. The Pri Chadash (Klalei sfek sfeka, ...


3

Gezeira means the rabbis prohibited specific acts that could likely lead to Torah prohibitions -- e.g. if you're reading by the light of a low-quality candle, you may forget yourself and play with it to get better light. Shvus are categories of activity -- such as "business transactions" and "healing" that the rabbis banned. There had to be a technical ...


17

The most famous instance of Jews choosing to follow only the written Torah without the oral rabbinic interpretations would be the Karaites who flourished from about 760 CE to 1100 CE. Today their numbers are relatively small. Wikipedia gives a worldwide estimate of about 45,000 people, but the source of their numbers is not given. Karaite Judaism is ...


1

If you want to specifically distinguish, I would go with corrective: something that corrects or counteracts something undesirable The Rabbis established a corrective. Bishul Yisroel is a Rabbinic corrective against intermarriage. But with the caveat that from my observation the distinction between takkana and gezeira is not regarded as important in ...



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