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17

The most famous instance of Jews choosing to follow only the written Torah without the oral rabbinic interpretations would be the Karaites who flourished from about 760 CE to 1100 CE. Today their numbers are relatively small. Wikipedia gives a worldwide estimate of about 45,000 people, but the source of their numbers is not given. Karaite Judaism is ...


10

The Talmud (Pesachim 54b) states that only for Tisha bAv must we be stringent for Bein Hashemashot. There is an opinion in Rishonim that only regarding the Bein Hashemashot at the beginning of the day is Tisha bAv unique, but all fasts require being stringent at the end because we have to wait until it is certainly night to uproot the current status ...


8

1) See Shabbat 23a, which discusses Menorah on Chanukah: מברך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להדליק נר של חנוכה והיכן צונו רב אויא אמר מלא תסור רב נחמיה אמר שאל אביך ויגדך זקניך ויאמרו לך Soncino translation: What benediction is uttered? — This: Who sanctified us by His commandments and commanded us to kindle the light of Hanukkah. And where did He ...


7

Rambam, Shabas 1:3, says: Someone who does so on purpose, we hit him with a smiting for rebellion (makas mardus). That is, bes din does.


7

Babylonian Talmud, Hullin, 116a: עוף איכא בינייהו ר' עקיבא סבר חיה ועוף אינן מן התורה הא מדרבנן אסירי ור' יוסי הגלילי סבר עוף אפילו מדרבנן נמי לא אסיר תניא נמי הכי במקומו של רבי אליעזר היו כורתין עצים לעשות פחמין לעשות ברזל במקומו של רבי יוסי הגלילי היו אוכלין בשר עוף בחלב לוי איקלע לבי יוסף רישבא אייתו לקמיה רישא דטיוסא בחלבא ולא אמר להו ולא מידי כי אתא ...


4

The sefer Tal Oros Vol. 3, Chapter 18 discusses this issue in great detail, and the following is a summary of his main points: The Kesef Mishnah comments on the Rambam that the fine that Ezra instituted "in his time" was not to give the Ma'aser Rishon to the Levi'im at all, only to the Kohanim. But in the generations after Ezra they instituted that it could ...


4

The following does not answer the historical aspect of the question directly, but it provides background suggesting that (1.) the circumstances during the diaspora seem to have frequently (if not usually) qualified as "times of oppression", not only during the most acute tragedies of Jewish history, and (2.) the fasts under those circumstances would not have ...


4

Rambam Shemitta veYovel 10:10,12 משגלה שבט ראובן ושבט גד וחצי שבט מנשה, בטלו היובלות--שנאמר "וקראתם דרור בארץ, לכל יושביה", בזמן שכל יושביה עליה: והוא שלא יהיו מעורבין שבט בשבט, אלא כולן יושבים כתקנן.‏ ... ובזמן שאין היובל נוהג, אין נוהג עבד עברי, ולא בתי ערי חומה, ולא שדה אחוזה, ולא שדה חרמים, ואין מקבלין גר תושב; ונוהגת שביעית בארץ מדבריהם, ...


3

The Rambam himself says in הלכות שביתת יום טוב - פרק ראשון כב יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר בָּרִאשׁוֹן אָסוּר בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכָל הַמְחַלֵּל יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה בֵּין בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת בֵּין בִּמְלָאכָה בֵּין שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת ...


3

Gezeira means the rabbis prohibited specific acts that could likely lead to Torah prohibitions -- e.g. if you're reading by the light of a low-quality candle, you may forget yourself and play with it to get better light. Shvus are categories of activity -- such as "business transactions" and "healing" that the rabbis banned. There had to be a technical ...


3

Rambam Hilchos Chanuka 3:5: ולמה מברכין על יום טוב שני, והם לא תיקנוהו אלא מפני הספק--כדי שלא יזלזלו בו. Why do we make a blessing on the second day of Yom Tov, as it was only established as a safek? In order that people do not come to disrespect the day If Yom Tov sheni was dealt with differently, in ways that treat it on a lower level due to ...


3

The Rashba (Toras HaBayis, Bayis 4, Shaar 1, 11b. Also in his chiddushim on kiddushin 73a d"h mamzer vaday) says it's a Torah principle. The Ran (Kiddushin 15b according to the Rif pages) also holds it's a Torah principle. The Rambam (Perek 12 in hilchos tumas hames, halacha 12) holds it's a principle from the Rabbis. The Pri Chadash (Klalei sfek sfeka, ...


2

מכת מרדות is not necessarily an indication of something being Rabbinic. You can only get Torah-ordained lashes if you do an action (with 3 exceptions). You can see the a list in the first half of the last Perek in Makos. Listening and looking (and smelling) are not classified as actions and therefore one who looks at forbidden things and one who listens ...


2

B"H The most basic - and presumably most practically important - distinction between laws of Scriptural and Rabbinic origin is what to do in case of a doubt. The general principle is: S'feika D'Oraisa l'Chumra, S'feika D'Rabbanan l'Kula - when confronted with a doubt in a law of Scriptural origin, take the stricter position; on a doubt in Rabbinic law, ...


2

You're correct about the punishment. If someone carried in a "public thoroughfare" on shabbos (a biblical violation) because they thought it was Tuesday, they had to bring a sacrifice for atonement. If someone carried in a deserted forest (a rabbinic violation) thinking it was Tuesday, no sacrifice would be brought. If done intentionally, warned, and ...


2

Rambam Sefer Ahava Hilchos Mila 2:6 says one may not carry the Mila knife on Shabbos even in a area where it is a D'Rabanan since it is possible to bring before Shabbos. כיצד הרי שלא מצאו סכין אין עושין סכין בשבת ולא מביאין אותו ממקום למקום. ואפילו מבוי שאינו מעורב אין מביאין אותו מחצר לחצר. ואין עירוב מדבריהם נדחה מפני הבאת הסכין הואיל ואפשר להביאו ...


2

I found the following in Rambam's Mishneh Torah: ספר אהבה הִלְכּוֹת תְּפִלָּה פֵּרֶק ד ד כָּל הַטְּמֵאִים--רוֹחֲצִין יְדֵיהֶן בִּלְבָד כַּטְּהוֹרִין, וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִפְשָׁר לָהֶן לִטְבֹּל וְלַעֲלוֹת מִטֻּמְאָתָן, אֵין הַטְּבִילָה מְעַכֶּבֶת. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁעֶזְרָא תִּקַּן שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא בַּעַל קֶרִי בִּלְבָד דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה, ...


2

Deuteronomy 17:1 על-פי התורה אשר יורוך, ועל-המשפט אשר-יאמרו לך--תעשה: לא תסור, מן-הדבר אשר-יגידו לך--ימין ושמאל This verse is understood to grant legislative power to the Sanhedrin for all time. There were Sanhedrins in session up to several centuries after the time of Esther and that is where all fully-binding rabbinic Law as we know it comes from. ...


1

If you want to specifically distinguish, I would go with corrective: something that corrects or counteracts something undesirable The Rabbis established a corrective. Bishul Yisroel is a Rabbinic corrective against intermarriage. But with the caveat that from my observation the distinction between takkana and gezeira is not regarded as important in ...


1

Assuming I understand your question correctly, batel b'shishim applies to both rabbinically and torah prohibited foods. It's basically the ratio at which chazal felt a tiny quantity of food became relevant. However keep in mind it only applies to food when you can't separate the two foods. If a piece of non-kosher cheese fell into a bowl full of pieces of ...


1

Your concerns are well-founded. While a number of bands are unaware of, or ignore, the clear health-related and halachic ramifications of loud music, it is certainly contrary to Jewish law to have loud music played at simchas (or otherwise). For an in-depth response and much more information on this matter, I would recommend Rabbi Forsythe's article "Dangers ...


1

Beis din could inflict makus mardus. That could in fact be more than the 39 lashes he gets for a biblical prohibition when the punishment isn't death (such as eating treifa or shaving with a razor). And according to the Gemara he gets מיתה בידי שמים (death by God's hand, not beis din's) if he violates rabbinic prohibitions to show, lhachus (deliberately), ...


1

The Maharal, in באר הגולה באר ראשון, explains the idea of Rabbinical mitzvos. He is addressing why these mitzvos do not "split" the Torah from its singular unity, and at the end he adds that it is also the reason we make the blessing: The Rabbinical mitzvos are all designed to straighten a person out to do all the actions he should be doing and avoid all ...


1

As you your self postulate, you cannot bring a proof from a missing clause in a Mishna, as we have the rule of תנא ושייר - a Tana can leave out cases. (Typically followed up with מאי שייר דהאי שייר שייר - what esle did you leave out, as there's always more than one clause left out, if somethig is left out.) By the way: The Gemara in חגיגה on .דף יח seems ...


1

To echo what Shalom said: Let's say, hypothetically, that Hashem "planned on" giving Jewish souls to children of Jewish fathers and non-Jewish mothers. However, Torah lo bashamayim hi - The [power to determine] Torah is not in the Heavens. In the times of the Mishanah and Gemarah, Chazal had the power to change reality by virtue of their declarations. A ...



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