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14

Rambam (Mishna Torah, Hil. Edim 18:3) notes that this rule is a g'zeiras hakasuv and gives no reason. According to Ramban (Devarim 19:18)(as expounded upon by Ralbag and Abarbanel), the logic is as follows: When we have two pairs of witnesses in contradiction (i.e. "Reuven did X" vs. "Reuven did not do X") then we have no reason to believe one pair over ...


10

If a man and a woman married to a different man have sexual intercourse, they are both liable to the death penalty by strangulation (Leviticus 20:10; Mishna Sanhedrin 11:1). The death penalty has not been administered since the Sanhedrin left their court room on the Temple mount in the years preceding the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (nor ...


9

Rabbi Michael Broyde (a Justice of the Beth Din of America) has a full article of the topic available in English here. He surveys a wide range of opinions from R Eliezer Waldenberg (author of Tzitz Eliezer), who holds that the prohibition of reporting does not apply in a just society, to that of R Moshe Feinstein (author of Igrot Moshe), who holds that the ...


7

Here's what I heard from Rabbi Yitzchak Breitowitz on the subject: The Aruch HaShulchan (living in Russia a hundred years ago) wrote that if a government's laws are fair to everyone, "like England's laws, or the Glorious Czar's", then no prohibition of mesira ("snitching") applies. Some feel that the entire sentence was written to placate the censor, and ...


6

R' Samson Raphael Hirsch, when describing your case about a thief's slavery, writes that the Torah's system of punishment is much better than the prevailing system of imprisonment, which basically destroys the perpetrator. This implies that jail is never found as a punishment in Judaism. That being said, there are times where someone is guilty of a severe ...


4

The torah itself never discusses imprisonment. Penalties for transgressions include restitution, financial penalties, lashes, becoming a slave, and capital punishment, but imprisonment as a final outcome isn't discussed. (I don't know how to prove a negative, sorry.) See Ypnypn's answer for something that looks like imprisonment but isn't. And ...


3

Killing by accident does not make one invalid for testimony. It is not listed among those who are invalid for testimony in Maseches Sanhedrin (nor in Rosh Hashanah). The general rule for invalidation for testimony is record of actions that involve dishonesty. There are exceptions even for that according to some.


3

Shulchan Aruch Harav Choshen Mishpat, The Laws of Damages to Body and Soul, Paragraph 11, quoting the Rambam and the Shulchan Aruch, writes: וכן המוסר אפילו ממון קל של ישראל ביד נכרים אם הוחזק במסירות ג' פעמים מיתתו בכל אדם מפני שהוא כרודף כמו שנתבאר בהלכות נזקי ממון Whoever reports even a small amount of Jewish money to the Non-Jews, if he did it 3 ...


3

For the main question see Sanhedrin 40b-41a: אמר עולא מניין להתראה מן התורה שנאמר (ויקרא כ, יז) ואיש אשר יקח את אחותו בת אביו או בת אמו וראה את ערותה אטו בראייה תליא מילתא אלא עד שיראוהו טעמו של דבר אם אינו ענין לכרת תנהו ענין למלקות דבי חזקיה תנא (שמות כא, יד) וכי יזיד איש על רעהו להרגו בערמה שהתרו בו ועדיין הוא מזיד דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (במדבר ...


3

As far as the second question, Sanhedrin 8b: ר' יוסי בר יהודה אומר חבר א"צ התראה לפי שלא ניתנה התראה אלא להבחין בין שוגג למזיד A scholar does not need to be warned, as warning is only given to differentiate between accidental and intentional sin [and the scholar is presumed to be aware that it is forbidden without being told]


3

The Limmud for "before the punishment" is from Kaasher Zamam, not Kaasher Asu (what they planned to do, not what they succeeded in doing). With a Challal, when the Eidim are made Zomminim, the whole Challal is undone and it is as if it never happened. So in the end they were only planning, they didn't succeed, so they are still under to the din of Kaasher ...


2

The Maharsha (Bava Basra 119a) addresses this question and answers that even though the person is theoretically exempt according to R' Shimon, he is still liable to be killed in a court if the witnesses were not made aware of his intentions at the time that they warned him: ומיהו הוא ודאי דהיה חייב מיתה בדיני אדם שלא ידעו העדים שהתרו בו שהוא עשה על דעת ...


2

Sanhedrin 40b: תנו רבנן מכירים אתם אותו נכרי הרג ישראל הרג התריתם בו קיבל עליו התראה התיר עצמו למיתה המית בתוך כדי דיבור (paraphrased) They ask the witnesses, "did he accept the warning and accept that he would be killed?" Rashi on התיר עצמו למיתה: התיר עצמו למיתה - שכשהתריתם בו אל תעבור שאתה מתחייב מיתה פלונית הוא אומר על מנת כן אני עושה דאם ...


2

I. When Eldad and Medad prophesied that Moshe would die and Yehoshua would take over, Yehoshua complains to Moshe: וַיַּעַן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן מְשָׁרֵת מֹשֶׁה מִבְּחֻרָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנִי מֹשֶׁה כְּלָאֵם (Bamidbar 11:28) Here's what Rashi writes: הטל עליהם צרכי צבור והם כלים מאליהם (ספרי) ד"א תנם אל בית הכלא לפי שהיו מתנבאים משה מת ויהושוע ...


2

hilchos meisira is very complicated and a rov has to be consulted. A mosser has a din of a non jew (yoreh deah 281:3) it is a very bad thing to be a mosser. However when there are laws in the land and chillul Hashem then it becomes a diff story.(choshen Misphat 388:12). See meseches Bava Matzia 83b the story with Rabbi Elazar and the king and the Ritva on ...


2

Their are different explanations given. Some give the technical reason that the zomemin are being testified against directly, while their testimony is on some other matter. The 2nd group's testimony falls directly on the 1st group, and they can't defend themselves from a an edus against them. (Compare this with regular contradicting testimonies, where both ...



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