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It refers to "mean noon," as opposed to "solar noon." True solar noon is when the sun crosses the imaginary meridian in the sky between east and west, i.e., when the sun is exactly in the south. The time this occurs varies slightly every day due to a number of factors; the variation is known as the "equation of time." (See here for an excellent explanation ...


The Shulchan Aruch Harav (1:8 in the Mahadura Basra) says that Chatzos is calculated by finding chatzos hayom and adding 12 (civil) hours to it.


Lechatchila person should not do it, if he already did in first half-hour after chatzos it is ok bedieved, but if already chatzos passee an one did not pray, he should do tashlumin after praying mincha. mishna berurah 89:1:7


See orach chayim siman 89, first siff in Ramma that once it hits chatzos its assur to daven. Mishna berura brings different opinions that if it was by accident one has a half hour after chatzos to daven, but one should assume like Ramma that there is no half hour make up time and therefore wait the half hour till mincha time, daven mincha, then pray a ...

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