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It refers to "mean noon," as opposed to "solar noon." True solar noon is when the sun crosses the imaginary meridian in the sky between east and west, i.e., when the sun is exactly in the south. The time this occurs varies slightly every day due to a number of factors; the variation is known as the "equation of time." (See here for an excellent explanation ...


The Shulchan Aruch Harav (1:8 in the Mahadura Basra) says that Chatzos is calculated by finding chatzos hayom and adding 12 (civil) hours to it.


What you are referring to is found in Simman 551:16. The Rema writes .ואפילו בערב-שתב של 'חזון' אסור לרחוץ כי אם ראשו ופניו ידיו ורגליו בצונן .ויש מקלים בחפיפת הראש בחמין למי שרגיל בכך כל שבת On that statement the באור הלכה ד"ה בחפיפת הראש בחמין writes ואפילו חל ערב-שבת של 'חזון' בערב תשעה באב [ומכל מקום בזה יזהר לכתחילה שיהיה קדם חצות ,ובדעבד גם אחר ...


Lechatchila person should not do it, if he already did in first half-hour after chatzos it is ok bedieved, but if already chatzos passee an one did not pray, he should do tashlumin after praying mincha. mishna berurah 89:1:7


See orach chayim siman 89, first siff in Ramma that once it hits chatzos its assur to daven. Mishna berura brings different opinions that if it was by accident one has a half hour after chatzos to daven, but one should assume like Ramma that there is no half hour make up time and therefore wait the half hour till mincha time, daven mincha, then pray a ...


In one wakes up after Chatzot HaLayla he should pray Arvit and after Arvit, bless Birkot HaShachar, and even if he goes back to sleep after all of that he does not bless Birkot HaShachar again in the morning. There is a debate regarding "הנותן לשכוי בינה" which the Shulchan Aruch (46, 13) says not to bless before Alois HaShachar but the Mishna Berura brings ...


Rabbi Eliezer Melamed, quoting Biur Halacha 418 Rosh Chodesh Asur & Kaf Hachaim 418:3, says it is forbidden for one to not eat in order to fast. However, if it happens that one does not eat for a while there is no problem. Thus the answer is that it is not mandatory to eat before solar noon, so long they are not intentionally fasting. ולכן אסור ...

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