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Great question. I myself have had this question and looked it up, and I found the article Why Do We Dip the Challah Bread in Salt? to be very interesting. To sum up what's written there: It's dipped in salt every time bread is eaten, and not only shabbos, the reason being your table is compared to an altar, which the sacrifices brought on the altar all had ...


Tosefos to Beitza 2b s.v. והיה suggests that whether or not manna fell on Yom Tov is a dispute between conflicting midrashim. One medrash says: ויברך ויקדש ברכו במן וקדשו במן שבשבת לא היה יורד מן אבל בי"ט היה יורד "and He blessed it," "and He sanctified it" - He blessed it with manna and sanctified it with manna, as on Shabbos manna did not come ...


Loewian was right in his answer, but it can be fleshed out a lot more. If one looks at general (non-Jewish) culture, there is a name for this part of the bread. It is the heel of the loaf, or the butt of the loaf. And it is also a widespread general (non-Jewish) practice not to eat the heel of the loaf. See for example here and here, out of many, many ...


(There is theoretical challah, i.e. the small portion taken off when making lots of bread which was given to the kohen back in the day, that's a different story.) You mean the traditional braided bread? It's just bread. Yes, you can give it to anyone for any purpose. There is the custom to eat braided bread on Shabbat, but braided bread is just bread.

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