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11

Rabbi Chaim Clorfene writes in his popular (and heavily annotated) book, The Path of the Righteous Gentile (p. 42), that B'nei Noach should learn parts of the Torah relevant to their service of God, as well as to the Torah's view on God. He adds that this can be broadly applied, as many areas of Torah "can bring one to greater knowledge concerning the ...


10

if she confesses she won't be put to death by Beis Din since you need 2 witnesses for that. and if there are 2 witnesses then she won't be tested by the sota water, hence there are not 2 witnesses. therefore, she would be saving her life from the water by confessing and would not be executed by beis din.


9

About your second question, defending himself by killing his executioners: Mishneh Lemelech (Hil. Rotze'ach Ushemiras Nefesh 1:15) implies that no. He says that in cases where extrajudicial killing is permitted (e.g., a goel hadam pursuing a murderer, or a zealot attempting to kill a Jew consorting with a gentile woman), then the intended victim may indeed ...


8

As stated above, the death penalty was exceedingly rare. Just regarding the burning part, fascinatingly the Talmud says that to burn someone at the stake is a violation of "love your fellow like yourself." Instead, a death sentence of "burning" is carried out by pouring molten lead down their throat. Still not fun, but it's seen as I believe less painful ...


8

To answer your more specific question: no, a Gentile who studies Torah in a forbidden way is still not stoned. The Rambam rules (Milchamot 10:9 and English) ואם עסק בתורה, או שבת, או חידש דבר--מכין אותו ועונשין אותו, ומודיעין אותו שהוא חייב מיתה על זה; אבל אינו נהרג.‏ If a gentile studies the Torah, makes a Sabbath, or creates a religious practice, ...


8

This blessing was instituted in the days of Raban Gamliel when the Jewish heretics (saducees, etc.) of the time posed a direct threat to the nation, the blessing was instituted as an anti-missionary move. http://www.ou.org/torah/taryag/shemoneh_esrei_12


7

Sanhedrin 43a: אמר רב חסדא היוצא ליהרג משקין אותו קורט של לבונה בכוס של יין כדי שתטרף דעתו שנאמר (משלי לא) תנו שכר לאובד ויין למרי נפש Said Rav Chisda: One being taken out to be executed, we give him a drink of a dose of frankincense dissolved in a cup of wine, to discombobulate his mind. As the verse (Proverbs 31) says, "give strong drink to one ...


7

The Gemara says that a non-Jew is liable to death for stealing less than a penny. "אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן בן נח נהרג על פחות משוה פרוטה ולא ניתן להשבון" The Rambam agrees.


7

According to this article, 40 years before the destruction of the Temple: Instructive though this is, it is merely an academic discussion, the right of imposing capital punishment having been taken from the Sanhedrin by the Romans a century before, "40 years before the Destruction of the Temple" (Sanh. 41a; TJ, Sanh. 1:18a). The rabbis agreed that with ...


6

Rambam, Sanhedrin chapter 19 lists "every thou-shalt-not that has kares and has no death by court and for which one gets lashes" (twenty-one of them, including eating chametz on Pesach). He then lists eighteen sins for which people are "liable to death at the hands of God", implication being that they don't have kares, such as a non-kohen who ate t'ruma.


6

Yes, he's liable. Here's one reason why. Everyone agrees that a third-party rodef ("pursuer") is not subject to kim lei bideraba minei (apply the greater punishment), as the rodef is not "liable to the death penalty." Rather, we do whatever is necessary to save the "pursued", with lethal force authorized only if needed. The bystander who shoots in the heart ...


6

Judicial execution is not the same as murder. The same torah that says "do not murder" also calls for the death penalty for certain transgressions, so there must be a difference. Tractate Sanhedrin discusses capital punishment in a fair bit of detail. There are strict rules, but nonetheless a death sentence is possible and does not violate lo tirtzach.


6

Bamidbar 27:3, quoting Tz'lofchad's daughters, who were seeking land in Israel: אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל ה׳ בַּעֲדַת קֹרַח כִּי בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת…‏ Our father died in the desert; he was not among the group who met against God in the group of Korach, but died for his own sin… The Sifre (ad loc.) ...


5

The Talmud in tractate Sanhedrin (Yerushalmi 7:4 Bavli 52b) asks this question. Two answers are given: 1) Rav Yoshiya: Since it is unspecified, it must be the easiest (קל) of deaths. (The Bavli explains this means the easiest of the four deaths known through tradition, following the opinion of the Sages (Mishna Sanhedrin 7:1) that strangulation is the ...


5

First, to clarify, people are not executed completely naked (as noted by HodofHod). There are two concerns involved here: 1.) Desiring a particular woman, which may lead to promiscuous behavior. 2.) Gazing at a woman with intent to derive pleasure. In this scenario, concern #1 does not apply because she is being executed. Concern #2 could theoretically be ...


5

The Rambam writes: 40 years before the destruction of the Temple, capital punishment was nullified among the Jewish people. Although the Temple was still standing, since the Sanhedrin went into exile and were not in their place in the Temple, these laws could not be enforced. The destruction of the temple was around 70 CE (I believe the Rambam puts it ...


4

No. The most severe sins warrant the death penalty at the hands of a Sanhedrin if properly warned etc., such as murder and violating shabbos. I believe a subset of those can warrant Karet if done intentionally but unwitnessed. The next category warrant Karet as a maximum, such as violating Yom Kippur or relations with one's sister. A Sanhedrin could give ...


4

Agreed that a person found guilty should accept their sentence; here's a different source. There are several different Midrashic explanations to Deuteronomy 25:11-12, involving a woman trying to save her husband. Several say the phrase to save her husband from his fellow excludes either saving him from an agent of the courts (carrying out the death ...


4

The Mishneh Torah, in Hilkhot Melakhim u-Milchamot 10:6-7[4-5], says: ו [ד] בן נוח שבירך את השם, או שעבד עבודה זרה, או שבא על אשת חברו, או שהרג חברו, ונתגייר--פטור. הרג בן ישראל, או שבא על אשת ישראל, ונתגייר--חייב; והורגין אותו על בן ישראל, וחונקין אותו על אשת ישראל שבעל--שהרי נשתנה דינו. ז [ה] כבר ביארנו שכל מיתת בני נוח בסיף--אלא אם כן בעל אשת ...


4

The Gemara in Sanhedrin 7a says that Aaron's intention was noble. He saw that the Yidden had stoned Chur to death and realised if he opposed them he would meet the same end. By killing Aaron the Jews would commit an unparalleled crime, of Killing a Kohein Venovi. Just take a look at the retribution God exacted for the killing of Zecharyah, a Coheon Venovi. ...


4

According to Rashi they were not killed. In his commentary to Joshua 7:24, Rashi writes that they were taken to see in order that they not copy his actions. Verse 25 says "וירגמו אותו" - they stoned him, in singular. "וישרפו אותם", they burned them, in plural, Rashi says refers to the tent and other property. "ויסלקו אותם" - they stoned them in plural, ...


4

Gersonides (Ralbag) is puzzled by this. He offers two answers. The first is that the children were minors, and that they consequently came under the category of Achen's property, with regard to the punishment. We must then say that the verse in Deuteronomy takes apllies only once the child becomes an adult by Jewish Law. This would appear consistent with the ...


3

In the ancient Near East, gods were worshiped at their altars. This is where each god was thought to live - its altar. A very common decoration under the god was a gold bull or calf. Although we wanted to worship an idol and were creating the calf to that end, Aaron had a different idea in mind. He wanted to create a throne for G-d. He said, "אֵלֶּה ...


3

The Maharsha answers that first they stoned him a little then they put a little wick in his mouth again not to the extent of death, they choked him almost until death and finally they chopped off his head killing him, thereby getting a bit of all the Deaths of Beis Din. The Shevus Yackov has a more an interesting answer. He claims is that Billam with his ...


3

I found two possible answers that are at odds with one another: 1. We know Ishmael repented in the lifetime of Abraham, since he allowed Isaac to precede him for Abraham's burial, (Gen 25:9, see also B. Bath. 16b). Pirkei D'Rebbi Eliezer, ch. 30 relates the following, which could suggest that his repentance happened in the desert: "In the merit of Abraham, ...


3

From myjewishlearning.com According to the Mishnah (Sanhedrin 1:4) the death penalty could only be inflicted, after trial, by a court composed of twenty-three judges and there were four types of death penalties (Sanhedrin 7:1): stoning, burning, slaying (by the sword), and strangling. A bare reading of these and the other accounts in the tractate would ...


2

There is such a thing as asking the Kohen Gadol, via the Urim VeTumim, to solve tricky questions, but not questions of contention that would otherwise require a Beith Din, just more guidance questions. Still, though, I think the point is to show not only how important Shalom Bayith is, but how incredibly difficult it is to maintain, and how a lack of trust ...


2

Sifri (Devarim 280) understands this last clause to be stating an exception to the rule about vicarious punishment: "Fathers [or, per Gra's note: adults] die for their own sins, but sons [Gra: minors] may die for their parents' sins," G-d forbid. (See also Shabbos 32b, which lists several sins that may bear such consequences.) So the plural form fits with ...


2

Because of the length, I am including this as a separate answer: As far as a death penalty for studying forbidden topics, the Lechem Mishneh commentary on the Rambam writes that there is no actual death penalty in this case, whether judicial or divine. He writes that it is a non-literal, rabbinic "death penalty" (Hil. Melachim, 10:9; see ad loc where he ...



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