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10

They are a Gershayim, a Hebrew diacritic used in a number of ways, but generally to indicate that a certain set of letters does not spell a word in the ordinary sense. In this case, it is used to indicate that the letters are to be taken as numerals.


8

Just searching around in Torat Emet finds a few mentions of different months, in Tanach, besides for Adar: Nissan Esther 3:7 Nechemiah 2:1 Sivan Esther 8:9 Tammuz Yechezkel 8:14 (kidding) Elul Nechemiah 6:15 Kislev Nechemiah 1:1 Zechariah 7:1 Teves Esther 2:16 Shevat Zechariah 1:7 NB: This list may be incomplete.


6

A calendar is important for the dead - this way the living can figure out when their Yarzheit is, and say Kaddish and learn as a Zechus for the Neshama.


5

The Jewish calendar actually has more than one "new year", depending on what you're counting. 1 Nissan is the new year for months; when the torah says "in the seventh month" (or some other numeric counting) it's counting from this. Nissan is the month of our redemption from Egypt, a defining moment in our history. The torah explicitly refers to the month ...


5

Start again from alef (1). There are chassidim who say the chapter for earlier rebbeim also (eg. on that Rebbe's birthday), and they start again from alef. This is what I see people doing, though I'm not sure if there's any documented source for it.


4

Rashi to Taanis 29a writes that the reason for increasing joy upon the entrance of Adar is that it is a time of miracles, such as Purim and Pesach. The implication of Rashi is that this simcha should last until Pesach, as that is still the time period of the miracles which cause this to be a season of simcha. (And perhaps you should sing the jingle until ...


4

http://kiddushhachodesh.com/ has many videos decently done.


4

The data you want (except the secular calendar stuff) is all here: http://hebrewcalendar.tripod.com/#24.4 For instance, you can note that in years where Marcheshvan has 30 days, the first day of Chanukka falls on the same day of the week as Rosh Hashana, and in years where Marcheshvan has 29 days, the first day of Chanukka falls on the one day of the week ...


4

This priority is given in the Yerushalmi Sukkah 4:1: ר' סימון מפקד לאילין דמחשבין יהבון דעתכון דלא תעבדין לא תקיעתה בשבת ולא ערבתא בשבתא ואין אדחקון עבדון תקיעתה ולא תעבדון ערבתא R' Simon ordered those who calculate [the calendar rules], "See to it that you don't let the blowing of the Shofar be on Shabbos, or the [beating of the] Arava on Shabbos. ...


4

Since the year begins at Rosh Hashanah, the number of the year changes then. Thus the year spans the secular year which changes in January. Thus this year (5776) started at Rosh Hashana 2015 and will end Rosh Hashanah 2016. The year 5700 was from Rosh Hashanah 1939 to Rosh Hashanah 1940. You may have heard about "year 0" of creation which is a virtual year. ...


4

It is fairly widespread, but not normative in the sense that is an objective teaching of Judaism that is incumbent on all faithful to believe. There's also some evidence that one should not believe it. What is meant by 'but at the end it shall speak and not lie?' — R. Samuel b. Nahmani said in the name of R. Jonathan: Blasted be the bones of those who ...


3

A different angle on the question: at the funeral for Rabbi Emanuel Gettinger (who was a mathematics and astronomy enthusiast), it was suggested that God values our engaging the world. This way, we would have to study astronomy to determine how to modify the calendar. (Recall that the Gemara praises the role of an honest human judge as "partnering with ...


3

Essentially the simplest answer is that, at the time of the Manna, they were told then "Today is Friday, gather double and save over because tomorrow is Shabbat and you won't find". (Beshalach). So with the Manna cycle it became "known" which day actually was Shabbat and once that happened the Jews have kept a record of it ever since and therefore in the ...


3

It is customary to pledge charity when saying yizkor (which is said on the last day of Pesach and Shavuos and on Yom Kipur and Sh'mini Atzeres) or "Kel male" (said anytime for specific persons, especially on or before a yahrzeit). (P're M'gadim, MZ, OC 284:2.) There are requirements to give to the poor on Purim (OC 694) and before Pesach (Rama, OC 429:1). ...


3

"CE" and "BCE" refer to the "common era" and "before the common era," respectively. They are secular ways of referring to the commonly-used calendar, alternative to the standard "AD" and "BC," which are Christian references. However, the actual calendar is the same; it's just the labels that are different. These secular labels were invented by Jewish ...


3

I'm not sure exactly what you mean by "correct" but if you're asking how the Jews wandering in the desert could have used the calendar we use today, the answer is, "they didn't" (although your confused reasoning about "two Shabbats" is irrelevant to that fact). Before the current calendar was developed in post-Temple times, a completely different calendar ...


2

R. H. Shachter notes in a shiur here (beginning at minute 66)1 that the Baal HaMeor seems to have embraced the secular chronology (to the ire of the Raavad) and added that Chazal's fallibility is affirmed by the Maharshal and Tosafos Rid, concluding that if the Me'or Einayim were published today, he doesnt think it would cause such a storm (over the ...


2

The names of the months came up with them from Bavel. Talmud Yerushalmi Rosh Hashana perek one, halacha two. This Yerushalmi is mentioned in Tosafos Rosh Hashana 7a, d.h. Midivrei. Most of the names are mentioned in megilas Esther and Nechemia. We can estimate then, at least to the latest possible date, based on Achashveirosh's reign. Wiki states ...


2

Here's another that also appears to be free. It is not, at least as far as I can tell only Chabad. I only recognize Rabbi Jacobs. FYI, only the smartphone app charges as far as it appears. https://www.mikvahcalendar.com


2

As explained in this article the ideal Jewish year is actually 13 months (representing a dominance of the Jewish lunar calendar over the non-Jewish solar one) and it will resume this cycle in the days of Moshiach. The leap month is added to provide access to the future redemption even in our times.


2

According to chabad.org "A further reason why we recall the miracle on Shabbat rather than on the tenth of the month is that, forty years later, Miriam died on that day and the well which accompanied the Children of Israel and provided them with water in the wilderness, disappeared. When the anniversary of Miriam's death fails on a weekday, some observe it ...


2

My son is the gabbai of our shul and he followed the minhag of our shul by announcing that he would be doing Kail Malei for each person who needed it at Mincha of Shabbos Mevorchim. Everyone who needed it came up at Mincha to have it done. Our shul has three mincha minyonim on Shabbos (after Daylight Savings Time starts), 2 P.M., 5:30 P.M. and a later mincha ...


2

You understand, I think, why there was a doubt about the day of Rosh Hashana and they needed two days (on the day after 29 Elul no one knew if witnesses would come or not, etc.). Thus, in fact, every date (eg.) on the Hebrew calendar had a one-day doubt to it (if you lived far enough away that messengers couldn't get to you in that number of days), either ...


2

Here's a piece on Chabad.org explaining it. Basically, it is on Elul 30 and Tishrei 1 -- the only problem is that Elul was set to only have 29 days. Back in the days of witness-based Rosh Chodesh, Elul sometimes had 29 and sometimes had 30 days. If it ended up having 29, then the day after (Tishrei 1) would be Rosh Hashanah and Tishrei 2 would be an ...


2

Your question seems to be premised on the idea that the same Torah section ("parasha") is read on or about the same calendar date each year. This is not completely correct: rather, the sections are read in order, to a large extent irrespective of calendar date. (Not completely irrespective, but that's beyond our scope.) Now, there are more Saturdays in a ...


1

During 12 month years the following parshas are normally "doubled up". Vayahkel and Pekudei (exception when Rosh Hashanah was a Thursday and the year is full so Pesach will fall on a Sunday). Tazria and Metzora Acharei Mot and Kedoshim Behar and Bechukotai (except in Israel when first day of Pesach was Shabbat like it was this year. As in Israel the 8th ...


1

yes and no Mishna berrura 605.2 ... כי כל עשי"ת הוא זמן לכפרות [פמ"ג ע"ש]. ... My translation All of the 10 days of teshuva is the time for kappros [pri megodim, see there] but from the maharal m'prag's book נתיבות עולם - נתיב הבטחון - פרק א page 232 last paragraph on the page and the first paragraph on the next page it seems ...


1

this article cites a reason given by Leket Yosher Orach Chaim, p. 118 par. 1 Summarizing: Simce people have more free time on SHabbat, they spend their time learning Torah and enjoying (Oneg) Shabbat. So,Yom Rishon is a good time to begin Selichot since people are still happy from Shabbat. And we also learn in Talmud Shabbat p 32b that the shechina (G-d's ...


1

Tishre 1st of Tishre - The new year for animal tithes -- Animals born in one year do not combine with animals born the following year - Rambam, Hilchot Bechorot 7:6 10th of Tishre - Shofar was blown on the 10th of Tishre on a Yovel Year to signal the freeing of the slaves - Vayikra 25:9 15th of Tishre - Chag Ha'Asif -- Celebrating the ingathering of the ...


1

They start after Rosh chodesh. Source: http://www.sephardichazzanut.com/Selichot.htm Starting after Rosh Hodesh Elul, Sephardic Jews around the world wake up in the early morning to recite the Selichot which consist of special prayers and poems.



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