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10

They are a Gershayim, a Hebrew diacritic used in a number of ways, but generally to indicate that a certain set of letters does not spell a word in the ordinary sense. In this case, it is used to indicate that the letters are to be taken as numerals.


9

Your question and DoubleAA's comment on my original answer have inspired me to do some research and learn some really fascinating information about the Hebrew calendar. First, some background information: Our current 19-year intercalary cycle was instituted by Hillel II in the fourth century CE. The calendar is a lunar calendar which typically has 12 ...


8

Just searching around in Torat Emet finds a few mentions of different months, in Tanach, besides for Adar: Nissan Esther 3:7 Nechemiah 2:1 Sivan Esther 8:9 Tammuz Yechezkel 8:14 (kidding) Elul Nechemiah 6:15 Kislev Nechemiah 1:1 Zechariah 7:1 Teves Esther 2:16 Shevat Zechariah 1:7 NB: This list may be incomplete.


6

A calendar is important for the dead - this way the living can figure out when their Yarzheit is, and say Kaddish and learn as a Zechus for the Neshama.


6

This question is discussed in the Bavli (Megillah 30a) and while one opinion recommends reading from Shemot 30:17 to the end of the Parsha, and then reading Shekalim at the end, the conclusion is in accordance with the opinion that we read the whole Parsha and then go back and read the Shekalim section again.


5

The Jewish calendar actually has more than one "new year", depending on what you're counting. 1 Nissan is the new year for months; when the torah says "in the seventh month" (or some other numeric counting) it's counting from this. Nissan is the month of our redemption from Egypt, a defining moment in our history. The torah explicitly refers to the month ...


5

Start again from alef (1). There are chassidim who say the chapter for earlier rebbeim also (eg. on that Rebbe's birthday), and they start again from alef. This is what I see people doing, though I'm not sure if there's any documented source for it.


5

It is fairly widespread, but not normative in the sense that is an objective teaching of Judaism that is incumbent on all faithful to believe. There's also some evidence that one should not believe it. What is meant by 'but at the end it shall speak and not lie?' — R. Samuel b. Nahmani said in the name of R. Jonathan: Blasted be the bones of those who ...


4

Rashi to Taanis 29a writes that the reason for increasing joy upon the entrance of Adar is that it is a time of miracles, such as Purim and Pesach. The implication of Rashi is that this simcha should last until Pesach, as that is still the time period of the miracles which cause this to be a season of simcha. (And perhaps you should sing the jingle until ...


4

http://kiddushhachodesh.com/ has many videos decently done.


4

The data you want (except the secular calendar stuff) is all here: http://hebrewcalendar.tripod.com/#24.4 For instance, you can note that in years where Marcheshvan has 30 days, the first day of Chanukka falls on the same day of the week as Rosh Hashana, and in years where Marcheshvan has 29 days, the first day of Chanukka falls on the one day of the week ...


4

This priority is given in the Yerushalmi Sukkah 4:1: ר' סימון מפקד לאילין דמחשבין יהבון דעתכון דלא תעבדין לא תקיעתה בשבת ולא ערבתא בשבתא ואין אדחקון עבדון תקיעתה ולא תעבדון ערבתא R' Simon ordered those who calculate [the calendar rules], "See to it that you don't let the blowing of the Shofar be on Shabbos, or the [beating of the] Arava on Shabbos. ...


4

Since the year begins at Rosh Hashanah, the number of the year changes then. Thus the year spans the secular year which changes in January. Thus this year (5776) started at Rosh Hashana 2015 and will end Rosh Hashanah 2016. The year 5700 was from Rosh Hashanah 1939 to Rosh Hashanah 1940. You may have heard about "year 0" of creation which is a virtual year. ...


4

Given that this involves Jews, the correct answer is that it is a machlokes. There are those who say that it can be done as long as it is sent to arrive on Purim. , and there are those who say that it cannot be done. Another point is that sending to an organization that distributes on Purim is like making a shaliach to give it out for you. This is ...


3

"CE" and "BCE" refer to the "common era" and "before the common era," respectively. They are secular ways of referring to the commonly-used calendar, alternative to the standard "AD" and "BC," which are Christian references. However, the actual calendar is the same; it's just the labels that are different. These secular labels were invented by Jewish ...


3

A different angle on the question: at the funeral for Rabbi Emanuel Gettinger (who was a mathematics and astronomy enthusiast), it was suggested that God values our engaging the world. This way, we would have to study astronomy to determine how to modify the calendar. (Recall that the Gemara praises the role of an honest human judge as "partnering with ...


3

Essentially the simplest answer is that, at the time of the Manna, they were told then "Today is Friday, gather double and save over because tomorrow is Shabbat and you won't find". (Beshalach). So with the Manna cycle it became "known" which day actually was Shabbat and once that happened the Jews have kept a record of it ever since and therefore in the ...


3

I'm not sure exactly what you mean by "correct" but if you're asking how the Jews wandering in the desert could have used the calendar we use today, the answer is, "they didn't" (although your confused reasoning about "two Shabbats" is irrelevant to that fact). Before the current calendar was developed in post-Temple times, a completely different calendar ...


3

5751,5752 The previous time The next time 5778,5779 (if we do not start deciding months by the court) This time 5775,5776


3

The years are 353, 354, 355, (nonleap) and 383, 384, 385 years (leap). divide by seven and the remainder shows how many days in the week each day in the year will have been moved from the previous year. Here is the modulo 7 list for the possible years. 353 % 7 = 3 354 % 7 = 4 355 % 7 = 5 383 % 7 = 5 384 % 7 = 6 385 % 7 = 0 This year we have 385 days which ...


2

I would just pin my opinion that the no. 613 is a combination of 6+1+3=10(ten commandment) 10 is 1+0=1(H" ekhad devarim:6:4) which means 613 mitzvot given to israel is directly connected to the existence of G-d


2

Here's another that also appears to be free. It is not, at least as far as I can tell only Chabad. I only recognize Rabbi Jacobs. FYI, only the smartphone app charges as far as it appears. https://www.mikvahcalendar.com


2

As explained in this article the ideal Jewish year is actually 13 months (representing a dominance of the Jewish lunar calendar over the non-Jewish solar one) and it will resume this cycle in the days of Moshiach. The leap month is added to provide access to the future redemption even in our times.


2

You understand, I think, why there was a doubt about the day of Rosh Hashana and they needed two days (on the day after 29 Elul no one knew if witnesses would come or not, etc.). Thus, in fact, every date (eg.) on the Hebrew calendar had a one-day doubt to it (if you lived far enough away that messengers couldn't get to you in that number of days), either ...


2

Here's a piece on Chabad.org explaining it. Basically, it is on Elul 30 and Tishrei 1 -- the only problem is that Elul was set to only have 29 days. Back in the days of witness-based Rosh Chodesh, Elul sometimes had 29 and sometimes had 30 days. If it ended up having 29, then the day after (Tishrei 1) would be Rosh Hashanah and Tishrei 2 would be an ...


2

Your question seems to be premised on the idea that the same Torah section ("parasha") is read on or about the same calendar date each year. This is not completely correct: rather, the sections are read in order, to a large extent irrespective of calendar date. (Not completely irrespective, but that's beyond our scope.) Now, there are more Saturdays in a ...


2

The most Sifrei Torah that can be taken out on 1 Shabbat is 5. And, actually, in many shuls, this will occur tomorrow morning and afternoon, so you may want to be there to witness a somewhat rare event. Here's how: 6 aliyot from parshat Tazri'a the 7th aliyah is from Pinchas for Shabbat Rosh Hodesh Maftir from parshat Bo for parshat Hachodesh A custom to ...


1

According to the Pri Chodosh, in his notes on the calendar (in the back of the Shulchan Aruch on Orach Chaim siman 428), the next time there's a difference from 247 years earlier will be in תתמז-תתמח (in machzor שח), which is 2087-2088 on the secular calendar. The last time was in תשז-תשח, which is 1947-1948.


1

A search online shows that funeral homes' giving out calendars is not a Jewish thing. (And the question of why funeral homes in general give out calendars is off-topic on this site.)


1

During 12 month years the following parshas are normally "doubled up". Vayahkel and Pekudei (exception when Rosh Hashanah was a Thursday and the year is full so Pesach will fall on a Sunday). Tazria and Metzora Acharei Mot and Kedoshim Behar and Bechukotai (except in Israel when first day of Pesach was Shabbat like it was this year. As in Israel the 8th ...



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