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18

The epoch for the Jewish calendar is the creation of the world, not the Revelation at Sinai which traditionally occured about 2500 years later and marks the beginning of distinctly Jewish national religious obligations.


12

Rashi in the linked Gemara says that the reason we are "marbim b'simcha" is because they are "ymei nisim k'mo Purim v'Pesach" based on which some conclude that Adar Rishon is not included, as no miracles happened in that time period. The Levush (685:1) says that we do not increase simcha in Adar 1. The Sfas Emes says we do. Some want to conclude based on ...


11

חוה"מ There is some discussion in the Jerusalem Talmud (M'gilla 7a-b) regarding which of the two Adars is considered the leap month (incidentally, halachic ramifications are discussed ad loc.). Medieval commentators interpret the Talmud as concluding that Adar I is the extra month (see Rashi to Rosh HaShana 19b, s.v. kamma ibbur hashana; see also Tosafos ...


10

After some much Hebrew googling, it seems as though the rationale is the other way around. Adar was doubled because it was the last month of the calendar (which started at Nisan with Passover) back then. The decision was to celebrate Purim (and all the other events) in the second Adar as to keep both redemption celebrations close (Purim and Passover). ...


8

This is discussed in the Talmud (Shabbat 114) and the Rambam rules (Shabbat 5:21) that no Havdallah is recited after Shabbat when Yom Kippur falls on Sunday.


8

You are correct that the .NET implementation is apparently not consistent with Halacha (i.e. Jewish law) (Orach Chaim 55:10 and Mishne Berurah ibid) and your first 2 rules are correct and consistent with Halacha. Jewish law (ibid, MB 45) calculations are correctly implemented in HebCal contrary to your third rule. Specifically, if a boy is born on 30 ...


8

To answer your question as briefly as I can, during a leap year where Rosh Hashannah begins on Tursday and the year is "Chaser" - "Deficient" meaning 383 days long, then Pesach begins on Sunday, and there will be 55 Shabatot in total. I am also assuming that we are talking about Galut readings, as Israel readings have slightly different rules. We have 54 ...


7

The gemara in Megillah 6b-7a explains why when it investigates the Mishnaic statement that in a leap year, one is required to read the megillah in the second Adar to be yotzei the requirement. (as per dafyomi.co.il) R. Eliezer says, every year we celebrate in the month next to Shevat. R. Shimon says, every year we celebrate in the month adjacent to Nisan. ...


7

Yes, someone born on a certain Hebrew-calendar date will have the same calendar date as his birthday every year. Thus, some one born on a red-letter day that is the same date every year, like the first day of Sukos, will have that as his birthday. (In fact, I have seen yahrzeit plaques that indicate "1st of Sukos" or the like instead of a date.) Some ...


6

Coincidence. The bible does not explicitly state the year in which Abraham was born, and as such, there have been disagreements about the calculations of the biblical years. Thus, it is unclear if Abraham was actually born in the year 1948 from Creation. The current civil calendar is the Gregorian Calendar, based on the Julian Calendar, which was created ...


6

The extra month is Adar I. That's because Purim (the holiday) is in Adar II, in a leap year. As Purim is celebrated also in non-leap year, the conclusion is that Adar II is the month that is always present whereas Adar I is present only in leap years. My guess is that the MS implementation is wrong.


6

This is the only occurrence of that phenomenon in the 247-year cycle. Source: the table in the Tur, hilchos rosh chodesh.


6

Technically you could date a check in Israel with the year 5774, and it would be valid; however, few people do so. The "Hebrew date", including the year, is used on Jewish marriage and divorce documents -- though they specify "according to the year 5774 to the world's creation, according to the counting used in this location of X", to make clear that we're ...


5

R' Ephraim Greenblatt holds that it applies to some extent to Adar Rishon was well. R' Yiztchak Zilberstein cites sources for both opinions but concludes somewhat tentatively that Adar I is also included. The last Lubavitcher Rebbe also holds that Adar I is included. See here and here. See also here.


5

R' Gil Student cites the Ibn Ezra “[T]he beginning of each individual’s year is from the moment he was born, and when the sun returns to the same point at which it was earlier, the person completes one full year” (['Iggeret HaShabbat, chapter 1]p. 21). Nevertheless, insofar as there are halachic implications, R' Student understood the Bar Mitzvah to ...


5

Luach Davar B'Ito 5771 page 283 says that you do not say Amein after V'leslichas Avon, you say Amein after V'lchaporas Pesha.


5

Dinonline has an extensive essay on this issue. In short, the Tzitz Eliezer and Yabia Omer allow the writing of the secular date, but mention that the Jewish date is preferred when possible. They do have different ideas on how to write it out (see article for details). The Maharam Schik, on the other hand, was against such a practice (I remember learning ...


5

The red-letter days listed in your question are, indeed, the only times we say it, and for the reason you quote: because those are the days the musaf sacrificial offerings were offered to God in the Temple back in the good old days. See Numbers chapters 28–29.


4

Sometimes the name changes because it spells a "bad" idea, but sometimes it's done because the other one is just nicer. 1910 - תר"ע became עת"ר (from Ra - bad) 1912 - תרע"ב became תער"ב (like here) (from Rav - hunger) 1917 - תרע"ז became עזר"ת (like here) (Ezras - help) 1919 - תרע"ט became עטר"ת (like here) (Ateres - crown) 1938 - תרצ"ח became תרח"צ ...


4

See here: http://ohr.edu/special/misc/timeline.htm 3000 years is a nice round number and refers back to the revelation at Mount Sinai which occurred 2448 years after creation. 5774-2448=3326 years ago. 3000 is just a round number that approximates 3326. You do have a very valid point, however. There's a tradition in the Talmud that states that the year ...


4

To solar cycle represents continuity and consistency. The lunar cycle represents rise and fall, והחיות רצוא ושוב. The two cycles don't inherently mesh, and it takes the actions of people (as represented by Beis Din which sets the leap year) to combine the two. See here for a similar expression of this idea. In terms of lessons in Avodas Hashem, there are ...


4

5774 is the 17th year in the 304th cycle of the moon. See page 7 of this link If you divide 5774 / 19 the answer is 303 with a remainder of 17.


4

On the 14th, during the desert and temple times, there was a "paschal offering to God" on the 14th and the holiday began soon after. For a chronology which explains how the time in Egypt for recognizing God's dominion began on the 10th of the month, check out Exodus 12:3 through 12:11. The sacrifice, timed by God in Exodus to coincide with the plague on the ...


4

"Up to about 1515 only Hebrew letters were used, but Daniel Bomberg introduced Arabic figures as well. In rare cases the alphabet took the place of numbers (Kol Bo, Rimini, 1525, Rome, 1545). Pagination was introduced later than the signature. No incunabulum appears to have had it. The first to have had numbered folios, though not very consistently so, is ...


3

The pamphlet "הדף היומי בהלכה", published by Dirshu, issue 4, Ⅰ Adar 5774, cites K'dushas Levi (Ki Sisa) and S'fas Emes (likutim for Adar) as saying that the month of Adar (whose zodiac sign is fish) corresponds to Yosef (which, like fish, is unaffected by ayin hara) — see the Tur (OC 417), who says each month corresponds to a tribe. Thus, it had ...


3

I have been told by a Rabbi whom I greatly respect that he has permitted geirim, along with the Jewish son of a non-Jewish father and a Jewish mother, to say Kaddish for their non-Jewish parent(s). I believe that much of his reasoning was based on Kibbud Av v'Em (which continues to apply to one's non-Jewish parents even after conversion where one is ...


3

According to the Michtav M'Eliyahu (Vol. 2 pg 125) on the essay titled "משנכנס אדר" he discusses how the command to be joyous when Adar enters is related to the joy of Purim. He explains that the happiness we feel on Purim is a הכרת הטוב - recognizing the goodness - of the miracle of Purim, which is all about revenge. HaShem took revenge on Haman and ונהפוך ...


3

The sefer אליהו רבה Siman 423 writes that it should be said for all the months of the leap year, but the custom is to say it only until Rosh Chodesh Nisan. The Pri Megadim explains that the Eliyahu Rabbah means that if not for our custom to stop after Adar we should really continue saying it until Tishrei. (The מהרי"ב explains that our custom of stopping ...


3

I have a book here that lists the Hebrew-calendar dates for starting "v'sen tal umatar" for the years 5750 through 5851. Counting, I see that in 26 of those 102 years (25%) Chanuka starts before that date. (And in two of the years they start the same night: 5787 and 5833.)


3

Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 56-58 discusses the different Minhagim. This is my understanding of what he says. An Aveil should not Daven for the Amud on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and the high holy days. Exceptions are as follows. If there is no one who can Daven as good as the Aveil the Aveil may Daven during these days. In addition if the Aveil is the regular Chazan on ...



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