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12

Rashi in the linked Gemara says that the reason we are "marbim b'simcha" is because they are "ymei nisim k'mo Purim v'Pesach" based on which some conclude that Adar Rishon is not included, as no miracles happened in that time period. The Levush (685:1) says that we do not increase simcha in Adar 1. The Sfas Emes says we do. Some want to conclude based on ...


12

HebCal is a full Hebrew calendar that provides lists of all the Jewish holidays, for any year. In the interest of full disclosure, i have done volunteer programming for them, but am not officially affiliated. Here is a list of all the Jewish holidays for the year 5775 (this year). Note that not every item on that list is a full holiday where work is ...


11

After some much Hebrew googling, it seems as though the rationale is the other way around. Adar was doubled because it was the last month of the calendar (which started at Nisan with Passover) back then. The decision was to celebrate Purim (and all the other events) in the second Adar as to keep both redemption celebrations close (Purim and Passover). ...


11

חוה"מ There is some discussion in the Jerusalem Talmud (M'gilla 7a-b) regarding which of the two Adars is considered the leap month (incidentally, halachic ramifications are discussed ad loc.). Medieval commentators interpret the Talmud as concluding that Adar I is the extra month (see Rashi to Rosh HaShana 19b, s.v. kamma ibbur hashana; see also Tosafos ...


9

It has been used 11 times so far since the enactment of the fixed calendar in 4119. It was used in 4179, 4257, 4504, 4602, 4849, 5096, 5194, 5441, 5519, 5688, and 5766. The next time it will be used is 6013 if we still have a fixed calendar then. You can read about this exceedingly rare Dechiya and its history here.


9

In Israel, only the first night is a full holiday, and as such, the Seder is only ever on the first night. In the Diaspora, both the first and second nights are full holidays. The Seder should be done on both nights. If, for some reason, someone is really only able to do one of them, it should be the first. This is because the first night is a Biblical ...


8

Yes, someone born on a certain Hebrew-calendar date will have the same calendar date as his birthday every year. Thus, some one born on a red-letter day that is the same date every year, like the first day of Sukos, will have that as his birthday. (In fact, I have seen yahrzeit plaques that indicate "1st of Sukos" or the like instead of a date.) Some ...


8

This is discussed in the Talmud (Shabbat 114) and the Rambam rules (Shabbat 5:21) that no Havdallah is recited after Shabbat when Yom Kippur falls on Sunday.


8

You are correct that the .NET implementation is apparently not consistent with Halacha (i.e. Jewish law) (Orach Chaim 55:10 and Mishne Berurah ibid) and your first 2 rules are correct and consistent with Halacha. Jewish law (ibid, MB 45) calculations are correctly implemented in HebCal contrary to your third rule. Specifically, if a boy is born on 30 ...


8

To answer your question as briefly as I can, during a leap year where Rosh Hashannah begins on Tursday and the year is "Chaser" - "Deficient" meaning 383 days long, then Pesach begins on Sunday, and there will be 55 Shabatot in total. I am also assuming that we are talking about Galut readings, as Israel readings have slightly different rules. We have 54 ...


8

R. Reuven Margolios in his sefer Ollelos here explains that when the Sanhedrin used to determine the date of Rosh Chodesh according to the sighting of witnesses of the new moon, it was of course impossible to announce beforehand on which day Rosh Chodesh would fall. But later, when the Romans made decrees which disrupted the announcements of the Sanhedrin ...


7

The gemara in Megillah 6b-7a explains why when it investigates the Mishnaic statement that in a leap year, one is required to read the megillah in the second Adar to be yotzei the requirement. (as per dafyomi.co.il) R. Eliezer says, every year we celebrate in the month next to Shevat. R. Shimon says, every year we celebrate in the month adjacent to Nisan. ...


6

The extra month is Adar I. That's because Purim (the holiday) is in Adar II, in a leap year. As Purim is celebrated also in non-leap year, the conclusion is that Adar II is the month that is always present whereas Adar I is present only in leap years. My guess is that the MS implementation is wrong.


6

Coincidence. The bible does not explicitly state the year in which Abraham was born, and as such, there have been disagreements about the calculations of the biblical years. Thus, it is unclear if Abraham was actually born in the year 1948 from Creation. The current civil calendar is the Gregorian Calendar, based on the Julian Calendar, which was created ...


6

Dinonline has an extensive essay on this issue. In short, the Tzitz Eliezer and Yabia Omer allow the writing of the secular date, but mention that the Jewish date is preferred when possible. They do have different ideas on how to write it out (see article for details). The Maharam Schik, on the other hand, was against such a practice (I remember learning ...


6

This is the only occurrence of that phenomenon in the 247-year cycle. Source: the table in the Tur, hilchos rosh chodesh.


6

Technically you could date a check in Israel with the year 5774, and it would be valid; however, few people do so. The "Hebrew date", including the year, is used on Jewish marriage and divorce documents -- though they specify "according to the year 5774 to the world's creation, according to the counting used in this location of X", to make clear that we're ...


5

The Babylonian calendar wasn't adopted exactly as it was, but the names of the months were. This was recognized by the Sages in the Gemara, Yerushalmi Rosh Hashana 1:2. Why the Jews adopted these Babylonian names is a good question. In fact, it seems like the Jews did have their own ancient names for the months, such as 'Ziv' and 'Bul', which are ...


5

Luach Davar B'Ito 5771 page 283 says that you do not say Amein after V'leslichas Avon, you say Amein after V'lchaporas Pesha.


5

R' Gil Student cites the Ibn Ezra “[T]he beginning of each individual’s year is from the moment he was born, and when the sun returns to the same point at which it was earlier, the person completes one full year” (['Iggeret HaShabbat, chapter 1]p. 21). Nevertheless, insofar as there are halachic implications, R' Student understood the Bar Mitzvah to ...


5

To solar cycle represents continuity and consistency. The lunar cycle represents rise and fall, והחיות רצוא ושוב. The two cycles don't inherently mesh, and it takes the actions of people (as represented by Beis Din which sets the leap year) to combine the two. See here for a similar expression of this idea. In terms of lessons in Avodas Hashem, there are ...


5

R' Ephraim Greenblatt holds that it applies to some extent to Adar Rishon was well. R' Yiztchak Zilberstein cites sources for both opinions but concludes somewhat tentatively that Adar I is also included. The last Lubavitcher Rebbe also holds that Adar I is included. See here and here. See also here.


5

The red-letter days listed in your question are, indeed, the only times we say it, and for the reason you quote: because those are the days the musaf sacrificial offerings were offered to God in the Temple back in the good old days. See Numbers chapters 28–29.


4

On the 14th, during the desert and temple times, there was a "paschal offering to God" on the 14th and the holiday began soon after. For a chronology which explains how the time in Egypt for recognizing God's dominion began on the 10th of the month, check out Exodus 12:3 through 12:11. The sacrifice, timed by God in Exodus to coincide with the plague on the ...


4

5774 is the 17th year in the 304th cycle of the moon. See page 7 of this link If you divide 5774 / 19 the answer is 303 with a remainder of 17.


4

"Up to about 1515 only Hebrew letters were used, but Daniel Bomberg introduced Arabic figures as well. In rare cases the alphabet took the place of numbers (Kol Bo, Rimini, 1525, Rome, 1545). Pagination was introduced later than the signature. No incunabulum appears to have had it. The first to have had numbered folios, though not very consistently so, is ...


4

Mishna Berura 417:1 ר"ח וכו' - מנהג קדמונינו לברך את החודש בשבת שלפני ר"ח חוץ מלפני ר"ח תשרי ורמז לזה בכסה ליום חגנו The custom is to bless the new month on the preceding Shabbos, with the exception of Rosh Chodesh Tishrei. A hint to this is the verse "in hiding the day of our Holiday" I once heard an explanation that this is in line with the ...


3

I have been told by a Rabbi whom I greatly respect that he has permitted geirim, along with the Jewish son of a non-Jewish father and a Jewish mother, to say Kaddish for their non-Jewish parent(s). I believe that much of his reasoning was based on Kibbud Av v'Em (which continues to apply to one's non-Jewish parents even after conversion where one is ...


3

I was told that the reason is that since there is no 'thousands' letter equivalent, we tend to show it as a separate indicator. It is similar to people who write the secular year as a two digit rather than a four digit number. Thus, the thousand indicator is shown as the letter with an apostrophe.


3

The pamphlet "הדף היומי בהלכה", published by Dirshu, issue 4, Ⅰ Adar 5774, cites K'dushas Levi (Ki Sisa) and S'fas Emes (likutim for Adar) as saying that the month of Adar (whose zodiac sign is fish) corresponds to Yosef (which, like fish, is unaffected by ayin hara) — see the Tur (OC 417), who says each month corresponds to a tribe. Thus, it had ...



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