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Your question is based on the mistaken premise that one Kohen in a Shul is not Biblically mandated to do 'Birkas Kohanim'. That isn't quite true.. What the Halacha does say is that if there is only one Kohen, then the Chazan isn't supposed to call out 'Kohanim', though if he mistakenly did (as often happens), the Kohen hasn't transgressed a Biblical Mitzva ...


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In a Shul that I Davened there was such an issue and the Kohanim would go out prior to the beginning of the Chazaras Hashatz and have their hands washed and Chazaras Hashatz began when they came back into the Shul. I was once in a different community where they installed a sink in the back of the Bais Medrash as they had this problem too. From Din.org - ...


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I don't know why, but R' Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (עלהו לא יבול p96) maintains that the Israeli custom is not to say this prayer at all. Nonetheless, one who has had a bad dream and wishes to say the תפילה, can do so during שים שלום. Source: שיח תפילה


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You asked: What if, during the hand-washing, less than ten people remain in the shul? Should the chazzan pause until they come back? The answer is: The Chazzan continues as usual. Source: The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch in 15:10 gives the rules what to do when the Minyan disappears: אִם אֵין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת רַק מִנְיָן מְצֻמְצָם, אָסוּר לְכָל אֶחָד ...


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The reason for the 'windows' is spelled out in Midrash Tanchuma, Naso 8: וכן הוא אומר, הנה זה עומד אחר כתלנו משגיח מן החלונות מציץ מן החרכים (שה"ש ב ט), מה בין אצבעות של כהנים. מציץ מן החרכים, בשעה שפושטין כפיהם. לכך נאמר, כה תברכו את בני ישראל: החרכים is read as 5 apertures (ה' חרכים), thus the custom of most Kohanim to place the 2 hands together, ...



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