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9

According to the Mishna (Sotah 9:12), the Shamir wasn't extinct until the destruction of the second Beis Hamikdash. Incidentally, there is no mention of the Shamir in Rambam. Ever the rationalist, Rambam doesn't believe in demons (which were associated with the Shamir). He held that it was okay to quarry and cut the stones outside the Beis Hamikdash area, ...


3

There are actually three different years found in Jewish sources for the destruction of the second Holy Temple in Jerusalem: 3828 / 68 CE 3829 / 69 CE 3830 / 70 CE This discrepancy is based on a number of factors. For more on that see: ...


2

According to Mishneh Torah Erechin V'Charamin 6:1, הקדש goes to the Temple treasury by default, but חרם goes to the Kohanim by default unless the person consecrating it specifies that it is to go to the temple treasury. This is based on Numbers 18:14 which gives "All cherem in Israel" to the Kohanim.


1

To your question about Kohein Gadol messing up on the avodah and dying on the spot, there is a gemoro in Yoma 9a “The Second Temple stood for 420 years, ve-shimshu bo yoter mi-shelosh meot Kohanim, and more than 300 served as High Priest over that period. Take out forty years in which Shimon the Tzaddik was the High Priest and deduct another 80 ...


1

An article by the Campus Rabbi of Bar Ilan University states: In his commentary to the Mishnah (Rosh Hashanah 1,3), Maimonides states that the Jews in the Second Temple period fasted on Tishah B'av. This was not a copier’s error. Indeed, In the fifth chapter of Hilchot Ta'aniot, halachah 5, after Maimonides listed the four fast days ...



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