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The discussion is in the Talmud Sanhedrin 22a. The background is the disagreement among the Rabbis if the Torah was originally in Ivri or Ashuri. The Talmud says that according to the view that it was in Ivri, Ashuri script was first seen when the Angel wrote it on the wall, thus the Jews were not familiar with it - this is why they couldn't read it. ...


6

Rav Saadiah Gaon writes in Chapter 2 of his commentary to Sefer Yetzirah lays down the correct pronunciation of the Hebrew letters, saying that not only is there בגד־כפת letters, but that even the ר has an alternate pronunciation with a dagesh so more like בגד־כפרת according to him. He basically says that Hebrew and Arabic share all the exact same sounds, ...


5

The מהר'ל in תיפארת ישראל , chapter 63 explains in length that these ketarim are actually secrets and deep ideas, related to concepts foreign to the materialistic perspective of the world. דע כי יש כתרים ותגין על אותיות התורה, שכשם שגוף התיבות מורים על דברי תורה עצמם, כך התגין שהם על האותיות שבתורה מורים על השגות דקות מאוד מאוד יוצאים מן התורה עצמה, ...


5

There are 304,805 letters in the Torah. There are 79,976 words in the Torah. There are 5,888 or 5,845 verses in the Torah. Bereishit (Genesis) 12 Sidrot 50 Chapters 1,534 Verses Shmot (Exodus) 11 Sidrot 40 Chapter 1,209 Verses Vayikra (Leviticus) 10 Sidrot 27 Chapters 859 Verses Bamidbar (Numbers) 10 Sidrot 36 Chapters 1,288 ...


4

The book מפתח הדלת, by ישראל חיים (Chaim) Lenchitz, revised edition, 5766, quotes this from Radak's Michlol, though I don't know where it is in Michlol: צריך אדם להזהר ולהבדיל בין ו״ו ובית רפה That is: A person must be careful and distinguish between vav and light ves. The same book claims that Radak says the same (in the same place in Michlol) ...


4

You find this a lot in older Sefarim. Usually you can find these in the margin closest to the binding - often hidden in the binding. It seems that this was how they differentiate between versions. Like between Pessach, Sukkoth and Shavuoth Machzorim, which use plenty common pages. In the case of the Machzor Rabba, they really used the same text for both ...


4

I believe that @YeZ is correct. When I lived in Washington Heights (upper Manhattan, NYC), I occasionally attended Cong. Sha'arei Hatikvah, which, I understand, still exists in the same location - across the street from the G.W. Bridge Bus terminal. They were "staunchly" Yekke. All 'ayins were pronounced as you describe, and the Chazan would say "Elokei ...


4

Machon Mishmeret Stam published a book on Mishnat Sofrim with a commentary. In an appendix, they deal with this exact issue: (I couldn't find an online version...sorry) Based on this text, I can answer your questions: Why did the Chofetz Chaim effectively seek to passul nearly all existing sifrei sta"m of his day? Why wasn't the existing פ ...


3

The addition of a nun is referred to in some grammars as "nunation"; this particular type of nun is the "paragogic nun", and its usage is controversial. It appears over 300 times throughout Tanakh (mostly in Deuteronomy, incidentally - 56 times), primarily on the ends of 3rd person and 2nd person plurals, but sometimes also on the end of a 2nd person ...


3

They are still pretty punctilious about using this pronunciation at Congregation Shearith Israel, the Spanish and Portuguese synagogue on the Upper West Side.


3

That's why The Shulchan Aruch Harav (32:20) writes: ומכאן אתה למד שאין צריך לכסות מלפניו שאר האותיות כמו שנוהגין שא"כ אף החכם שמבין הענין שקורא מהיכן יבין לקרות אות זו כהלכתה כיון שאינו יודע ענינה ופירושה ומכל מקום אות שנפסקה בנקב ונשתייר ממנה גם למטה מהנקב צריך לכסות מלפניו מה שלמטה מהנקב לפי שהוא יצרפנה עם מה שלמעלה מהנקב ויקרא האות כהלכתה ...


3

R. Yitzchak Hutner (in Pachad Yitzchak to Sukkos) writes that the reason a "hei" was added was because Avraham was becoming a new creation, so to speak - being fashioned from new. As the Midrash writes, (Midrash Rabba 12:2) when God created the world, He did so with the letter "hei". Whatever that may mean, the letter "hei" is clearly symbolic (and maybe ...


3

I heard in a shiur from R' Moshe Wolfson that Avraham was given his new name in the context of the promise to have children and become a nation. The letter ה is the אות ההולדה, the letter of birth, as it is the feminine letter (the letter that turns a word into a grammatically feminine word). Avraham was being given the ability to father a nation, ...


2

Ofer's answer mentions that the Bar Ilan program has the complete list. However, this program is costly, and I don't think that most people have it. This functionality is also found in the free Torat Emet program, under the tab "שונות" ("shonot", "Miscellaneous"), as shown below:


2

In Aruch Hashulchan, סימן ס״א, סעיף ח׳, regarding K'rias Shema, it states: וכן בין שי"ן שמאלית לתי"ו רפה.... וכן הסמ"ך לא יהיה דומה לתי"ו רפה That means that one should be careful to distinguish between שׂ (Sin) and ת (Saf, or Taf without a dagesh), and also between ס (Samech) and ת.


2

I can answer only 1 of your questions, as I have memorized the names of all the 63 tractates ... unless you want to include the "small tractates" that appear after Avodah zarah (such as Avot D'Rav Nattan) - I think that would add another 5 or 6 to that number. Many tractates only have mishnah - not Gemarrah. Wikipedia article on Talmud should provide you ...


2

To summarize from Yishai's answer, the Talmud says there was something funny about the way it was written; "in columns" is one possible interpretation. Assuming Manasseh ben Israel gave Rembrandt a sketch of what the letters should look like, I'd find it far more likely that Rembrandt was faithful to the sketch he was given (i.e. it was in columns) than that ...


1

I don't see any connection between the broken פ that looks like 2 letters sitting one on another - and the פ you show in the Tikkun, the Mishnat Sofrim and the Chabad sites, which are not neatly curved (like modern script) but the letter has a clear - albeit crooked/curvy - continuum. Point being, that there are 3 פ's - and not 2, as you claim: The פ ...


1

There are two points I'll make. But I do hope someone else has a sourced answer. First of all, this is something 'in the Torah' that these heretics are careful about. Therefore, they have believability as per the first chapter in Chulin regarding the Cuthim. Second, the Tshuvas HaRashba Hamyuchas LiHaRamban siman 232 which is brought in the Meiri's Kiryas ...


1

The variant i'm used to hearing is that daleth without a dagesh should sound like the "th" sound in the english word "the." Here is a video according to this tradition, a Mizrahi accent, non Yemenite. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSAu-wBvYHg


1

First of all, the dilemma presented by this question is based on an equivocal use of the word "change". The Orthodox position that the Torah we have today is the same as it was given to Moses refers to the content of the Torah. Our Sifrei Torah display a diversity of styles with regard to the script and are not presumed to be visually identical with the ...


1

I have found an answer to my question after a long time of copying and pasting. In Tanach, there are 1196825 letters. This does not include kri, but only the ksiv. It includes the 9 inverted nuns.


1

See the introduction to the Jerusalem Bible by Koren Publishers. They go to great lengths to explain how they crafted a font so as to solve the issue you raise: they differentiate between the Cholem and the Shin/Sin dots by height and weight so that you can see both - and not confuse them. So, as DoubleAA already commented, what you are referring to is ...


1

Traditional object not a ritual, and it should go from right to left like any other hebrew.


1

My answer is reaction to both the previous answer as well as accounting for @DoubleAA's comment. I've had this situation a few times in my shul while I was reading the parsha. Our shul rarely has kids attending. (Sad, somewhat...) When I fiind a questionable mistake, I call the rav. He makes the final decision. Sometimes he can tell, it's definitely no good ...


1

If there is a doubt whether or not a letter is properly formed, a child, who can recognize letters but does not yet know how to read, is brought, and checks the letter. If he identifies it properly, the torah is considered kosher, and the reading continues; if not, the torah is pasul and must be fixed. Source: Shulchan Aruch OC 32:16 The Mechaber paskens ...


1

R. Aryeh Kaplan, in his article "Reverence of the Sacred," writes that י-ו is written as טז, not because it's a divine name (unlike י-ה, which Avot DeRabbi Natan 34:2 and others write is actually a biblical name of God). Rather, its lettering is changed because י-ו "resembles a divine name." This exemplifies our sensitivity to desecrating God's name (other ...


1

Exactly 1000 chapters. The blog giluy milta b'alma of Dr. Ezra Chwat provides manuscript evidence that Rambam deliberately adjusted the MT to have this many chapters.


1

There are 14 books, I don't know the other statistics.


1

I believe that many current printings are changing the Rashi script into block script. One reason to use Rashi script is a very technical one: When multiple commentaries are printed on a page, it presents a visual difficulty. By writing half of the commentaries in Rashi script, it is easier for a person to visually track and read each commentary.



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