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6

Rav Saadiah Gaon writes in Chapter 2 of his commentary to Sefer Yetzirah lays down the correct pronunciation of the Hebrew letters, saying that not only is there בגד־כפת letters, but that even the ר has an alternate pronunciation with a dagesh so more like בגד־כפרת according to him. He basically says that Hebrew and Arabic share all the exact same sounds, ...


6

It's a Dagesh Forte which indicates gemination of the consonant "w". So the word would be read something like Yiwwadha' with a prolonged /w/ sound. The word is in passive future third-person masculine singular and means "[he] will be known".


5

The founder of Chabad Lubavitch suggested that the vowels would be added to the count of 304,800-plus letters to reach 600,000 total. Others state that the spaces between the letters for "white letters" that add to the count Where Are the 600,000 Letters of the Torah? 600,000 Letters in the Torah? Firstly, there are several non-standard methods of ...


5

R' Yaakov Kamenetsky in Emes L'Yaakov refers to a concept that many letters are made up of other letters, for example an aleph is a vov and two yuds. He suggests that if we were adept enough in counting this way, we would be able to reach the correct total of 600k. I saw that Rabbi Leff (in his book on Shemoneh Esrei) wanted to reinterpret the Talmudic ...


4

The addition of a nun is referred to in some grammars as "nunation"; this particular type of nun is the "paragogic nun", and its usage is controversial. It appears over 300 times throughout Tanakh (mostly in Deuteronomy, incidentally - 56 times), primarily on the ends of 3rd person and 2nd person plurals, but sometimes also on the end of a 2nd person ...


4

Hayom Yom, 3 Tishrei The Tzemach Tzedek had yechidus with the Alter Rebbe on Monday of Teitzei, 6 Elul 5564 (1804); the Rebbe told him: "On Shabbat Tavo 5528 (1768), my Rebbe (the Maggid of Mezritch) said a "Torah" beginning V'shavta ad Havayeh Elokecha1 He explained that the avoda of teshuva must attain a level at which Havayeh, transcendent Divinity ...


4

The Hebrew language is considered the holy tongue, but not because it is ascetically pleasing from a grammarian's view point. It is holy because holy people use it to convey holy ideas, and it is ill suited (in its original incarnation) for speaking on profane matters. The Rambam writes: I have also a reason and cause for calling our language the holy ...


4

Many of your point are only relevant to Modern Hebrew, which is a distinct language from Biblical Hebrew, only the latter being a holy language. In fact, many orthodox Jews distance themselves from Modern Hebrew (to the point of prohibiting its use in their synagogues) because of what is deemed to be its inherent un-holiness. Nevertheless, let me address ...


3

From here, it seems there may only (?!) be that verse from Psalms (7:3): פן יטרף כאריה נפשי פרק ואין מציל If you're okay with the last word beginning with a ל (rather than ending with one), you could also use from אשת חיל (cited here): פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה Or, if you're also okay with it being a quote from the Shabbat prayer service ...


3

Torah, mezuzot and tefillin, or legal documents are written without nekudot (vowels). This includes the dot of the shin/sin. So there would be no halachic difference, being that there's no difference of the letter. This is only for writing. When praying, reading the Torah, etc., you'll need to say it correctly. Edit: I just realised that you wrote ...


2

I know this is a bit late, but some may find this useful: Israel Yevin says that "rolled up pe" (פ' לפופה) and other "curved letters" (אותיות עקומות) appear in Masoretic notes. He says "such forms were only used in a few MSS. The rolled up pe, for instance, is much used in Yemenite MSS." (Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah, p. 48).


2

Not all columns do start with vav, not all columns must start with vav, and the custom to make all of them start that way became far more popular some 30 years ago according to http://lavlor.blogspot.co.uk/2013/08/how-many-lines-should-my-torah-scroll.html (H/T to Zvi's accepted answer on the linked question). Before Davidovich's tikkun, I understand the ...


2

The Alphabet was used by the Babylonian and Persian Empire. We have pleeenty of examples of this script being used by non-Jewish, non Hebrew writers in the Babylonian (and later Persian) kingdom. The Aramaic and Phoenician alphabets continued to develop and so the letters continued to have slight evolutions. A very common Alphabet that we have records of is ...


1

The correct pronunciation is a pharyngealized glottal stop. The best way to learn to pronounce this letter is to learn how to properly learn how to pronounce a Teth (ט) first. This is a pharyngealized voiceless alveolar stop. To make this sound, make your tongue into a cup. It should be pressing on your furthest back top molars. You should also feel an ...


1

When I was learning to write I asked my teacher the same question and was told that there is no significance to the order or direction other then this is what makes the nicest letters. I suspect that a chasidish or sefardik/kabalistic sofer may have learned differently.


1

The Yud in the Heh - ה In Hilchot Safrus we consider the ה to be made up of a ד and an upside down י In סימן לב - סדר כתיבת התפלין sometimes it's called the inside leg of the Heh other times it's called the leg of the Heh נִקַּב רֶגֶל פְּנִימִי שֶׁל הֵ '' א אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא כָּל שֶׁהוּא כָּשֵׁר לְהָרֹא''שׁ אִם נָגְעוּ רַגְלֵי ...


1

There are two points I'll make. But I do hope someone else has a sourced answer. First of all, this is something 'in the Torah' that these heretics are careful about. Therefore, they have believability as per the first chapter in Chulin regarding the Cuthim. Second, the Tshuvas HaRashba Hamyuchas LiHaRamban siman 232 which is brought in the Meiri's Kiryas ...


1

The variant i'm used to hearing is that daleth without a dagesh should sound like the "th" sound in the english word "the." Here is a video according to this tradition, a Mizrahi accent, non Yemenite. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSAu-wBvYHg


1

First of all, the dilemma presented by this question is based on an equivocal use of the word "change". The Orthodox position that the Torah we have today is the same as it was given to Moses refers to the content of the Torah. Our Sifrei Torah display a diversity of styles with regard to the script and are not presumed to be visually identical with the ...


1

I have found an answer to my question after a long time of copying and pasting. In Tanach, there are 1196825 letters. This does not include kri, but only the ksiv. It includes the 9 inverted nuns.


1

R. Aryeh Kaplan, in his article "Reverence of the Sacred," writes that י-ו is written as טז, not because it's a divine name (unlike י-ה, which Avot DeRabbi Natan 34:2 and others write is actually a biblical name of God). Rather, its lettering is changed because י-ו "resembles a divine name." This exemplifies our sensitivity to desecrating God's name (other ...


1

This article has a comprehensive list. It shows an example for every "first-letter/last-letter" combination: nifla-ot.co.il/articles/138.htm


1

Hidāyat al-Qāriʾ (see Eldar's edition) indicates that the regular resh pronunciation was articulated at the middle of the tongue. This is farther out than the articulation for fricative gimel (IPA: ɣ) or the fricative kaf (IPA: x), which was articulated "at the back third of the tongue". This suggests that resh had an advanced uvular articulation. It is ...


1

I am not a speaker of modern Hebrew, but am a beginning level learner of Biblical Hebrew. However I did study about ancient Hebrew pronunciation, linguistics, and specifically phonetics quite a bit. I lean heavily in three areas, 1. "logical" phonetics, belief that original/Biblical Hebrew is designed and there should be logical rules to discover when ...



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