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12

The discussion is in the Talmud Sanhedrin 22a. The background is the disagreement among the Rabbis if the Torah was originally in Ivri or Ashuri. The Talmud says that according to the view that it was in Ivri, Ashuri script was first seen when the Angel wrote it on the wall, thus the Jews were not familiar with it - this is why they couldn't read it. ...


9

Indeed, the Beit Yosef (OC 36) cites the Gemara you reference and claims that the ש should have a pointed base. The Peri Megadim (EA end of 32) is unsure if this is a necessary component of the letter. The Keset HaSofer (5:2:ש) implies it would be Kosher Bedieved, but one should be very careful to avoid a flat base. The Mishna Berura (Mishnat Sofrim ש) is ...


6

Bavli, Shabas 104, is such a source. Plus, there are a number of chapters of Tanach written as alphabetical acrostics (albeit with omissions or a slightly different order in some cases): specifically, Pslams 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, and 145; Proverbs 31; and most of Lamentations.


6

If the Nun's were not inverted but were left as regular letters, it is kosher bdieved. Source: Sefer Keses Hasofer (Mahadura Tinyana), Chakira 17 (s.v. v'hinei hageonum) citing Noda Beyhudah and others (Sefer Keses Hasofer is the classic source for Hilchos Stam by Rav Shlomo Ganzfried, the author of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch and is probably the standard ...


6

The Yalkut Shimoni (Ruth, 608) makes the same observation: (translation mine) Rabbi Chiyya says "All the starts of verses in Ruth have "Vav"s except for 8, since she cleaved to the Covenant that was given on the eighth day (circumcision). The justifcation for the "vav"s is : Woe ("Vai") to the generation that judges their judges. Woe to the ...


5

Chida: every single Passuk begins with a vov aside for 8 pesukim, the eight verses begin with 8 letters YUD SHIN AYIN YUD BEIS ALEPH HEH LAMED. His students explained that the letters can be read as YISH’I B’OHEL. All the pesukim begin with a vov, a link, but my salvation comes from the ohel (tent), that Moavite males were responsible and not the females ...


5

The מהר'ל in תיפארת ישראל , chapter 63 explains in length that these ketarim are actually secrets and deep ideas, related to concepts foreign to the materialistic perspective of the world. דע כי יש כתרים ותגין על אותיות התורה, שכשם שגוף התיבות מורים על דברי תורה עצמם, כך התגין שהם על האותיות שבתורה מורים על השגות דקות מאוד מאוד יוצאים מן התורה עצמה, ...


4

There are 304,805 letters in the Torah. There are 79,976 words in the Torah. There are 5,888 or 5,845 verses in the Torah. Bereishit (Genesis) 12 Sidrot 50 Chapters 1,534 Verses Shmot (Exodus) 11 Sidrot 40 Chapter 1,209 Verses Vayikra (Leviticus) 10 Sidrot 27 Chapters 859 Verses Bamidbar (Numbers) 10 Sidrot 36 Chapters 1,288 ...


4

There are many different substitution systems. I'm not aware of any place that puts them all nicely in a catalog, but in Sefer HaErchin Chabad in the section (two different volumes of it, actually) about letters it intersperses many examples of the types of substitutions. The one you are looking at is based on the part of the mouth where the letter is ...


4

I believe that @YeZ is correct. When I lived in Washington Heights (upper Manhattan, NYC), I occasionally attended Cong. Sha'arei Hatikvah, which, I understand, still exists in the same location - across the street from the G.W. Bridge Bus terminal. They were "staunchly" Yekke. All 'ayins were pronounced as you describe, and the Chazan would say "Elokei ...


4

Machon Mishmeret Stam published a book on Mishnat Sofrim with a commentary. In an appendix, they deal with this exact issue: (I couldn't find an online version...sorry) Based on this text, I can answer your questions: Why did the Chofetz Chaim effectively seek to passul nearly all existing sifrei sta"m of his day? Why wasn't the existing פ ...


3

The book מפתח הדלת, by ישראל חיים (Chaim) Lenchitz, revised edition, 5766, quotes this from Radak's Michlol, though I don't know where it is in Michlol: צריך אדם להזהר ולהבדיל בין ו״ו ובית רפה That is: A person must be careful and distinguish between vav and light ves. The same book claims that Radak says the same (in the same place in Michlol) ...


3

You find this a lot in older Sefarim. Usually you can find these in the margin closest to the binding - often hidden in the binding. It seems that this was how they differentiate between versions. Like between Pessach, Sukkoth and Shavuoth Machzorim, which use plenty common pages. In the case of the Machzor Rabba, they really used the same text for both ...


3

That's why The Shulchan Aruch Harav (32:20) writes: ומכאן אתה למד שאין צריך לכסות מלפניו שאר האותיות כמו שנוהגין שא"כ אף החכם שמבין הענין שקורא מהיכן יבין לקרות אות זו כהלכתה כיון שאינו יודע ענינה ופירושה ומכל מקום אות שנפסקה בנקב ונשתייר ממנה גם למטה מהנקב צריך לכסות מלפניו מה שלמטה מהנקב לפי שהוא יצרפנה עם מה שלמעלה מהנקב ויקרא האות כהלכתה ...


3

They are still pretty punctilious about using this pronunciation at Congregation Shearith Israel, the Spanish and Portuguese synagogue on the Upper West Side.


3

If you look at a sefer torah written in the 'Sefaradi' style you will see that the Shin is not quite the same as the one you posted. Although it does have more of a base, you will see that it is still on a tilt. Only the bottom left corner reaches the bottom, the right side is raised. See this image for an example (from here):


3

Shabbos 104a מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה Why is the leg of the gimmel sticking towards the dalet? Because the "gomel" - bestower- of kindness runs after the "dalim" - downtrodden. Why is ...


3

פה נטמן - here is buried/interred ...


3

R. Yitzchak Hutner (in Pachad Yitzchak to Sukkos) writes that the reason a "hei" was added was because Avraham was becoming a new creation, so to speak - being fashioned from new. As the Midrash writes, (Midrash Rabba 12:2) when God created the world, He did so with the letter "hei". Whatever that may mean, the letter "hei" is clearly symbolic (and maybe ...


3

I heard in a shiur from R' Moshe Wolfson that Avraham was given his new name in the context of the promise to have children and become a nation. The letter ה is the אות ההולדה, the letter of birth, as it is the feminine letter (the letter that turns a word into a grammatically feminine word). Avraham was being given the ability to father a nation, ...


2

Ofer's answer mentions that the Bar Ilan program has the complete list. However, this program is costly, and I don't think that most people have it. This functionality is also found in the free Torat Emet program, under the tab "שונות" ("shonot", "Miscellaneous"), as shown below:


2

This calls for a crash course in the evolution of the religion today known as Judaism but even a crash course would more befit a book than this site. Briefly, there were 12 tribes (approx). As a unified group, he tribes accepted the Mosaic code of written laws. After settling in the land and having a couple of kings, the nation broke into 2 parts -- the ...


2

Pasted from my answer to this question: Stretching letters is not a matter of custom, but one of practicality. Halacha requires the columns be justified. Microsoft Word handles justifies text by widening spaces between words and letters. You can't do this in a sefer torah, so the sofer stretches letters instead. Good tikkunim minimize the number of "short" ...


2

I can answer only 1 of your questions, as I have memorized the names of all the 63 tractates ... unless you want to include the "small tractates" that appear after Avodah zarah (such as Avot D'Rav Nattan) - I think that would add another 5 or 6 to that number. Many tractates only have mishnah - not Gemarrah. Wikipedia article on Talmud should provide you ...


2

To summarize from Yishai's answer, the Talmud says there was something funny about the way it was written; "in columns" is one possible interpretation. Assuming Manasseh ben Israel gave Rembrandt a sketch of what the letters should look like, I'd find it far more likely that Rembrandt was faithful to the sketch he was given (i.e. it was in columns) than that ...


1

Traditional object not a ritual, and it should go from right to left like any other hebrew.


1

My answer is reaction to both the previous answer as well as accounting for @DoubleAA's comment. I've had this situation a few times in my shul while I was reading the parsha. Our shul rarely has kids attending. (Sad, somewhat...) When I fiind a questionable mistake, I call the rav. He makes the final decision. Sometimes he can tell, it's definitely no good ...


1

If there is a doubt whether or not a letter is properly formed, a child, who can recognize letters but does not yet know how to read, is brought, and checks the letter. If he identifies it properly, the torah is considered kosher, and the reading continues; if not, the torah is pasul and must be fixed. Source: Shulchan Aruch OC 32:16 The Mechaber paskens ...


1

In Aruch Hashulchan, סימן ס״א, סעיף ח׳, regarding K'rias Shema, it states: וכן בין שי"ן שמאלית לתי"ו רפה.... וכן הסמ"ך לא יהיה דומה לתי"ו רפה That means that one should be careful to distinguish between שׂ (Sin) and ת (Saf, or Taf without a dagesh), and also between ס (Samech) and ת.


1

Exactly 1000 chapters. The blog giluy milta b'alma of Dr. Ezra Chwat provides manuscript evidence that Rambam deliberately adjusted the MT to have this many chapters.



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