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10

Rabbi Moshe Isserlis writes (YD 275:6) about various scribal traditions including large/small letters that אם שינה לא פסל - if [the scribe] deviated, he did not invalidate [the scroll]. Obviously if they can be fixed, one should do so to conform with the tradition.


8

From what I understand, your second question is based on the assumption that every column begins what a Vav. While this seems to be common practice, it is frowned upon by the Poskim who seem to claim that it has no basis in halacha. See for example the Keseth HaSofer at the end of Ch. 4 - and the footnote there. He claims that the ווי העמודים - as it's ...


7

Indeed, the Beit Yosef (OC 36) cites the Gemara you reference and claims that the ש should have a pointed base. The Peri Megadim (EA end of 32) is unsure if this is a necessary component of the letter. The Keset HaSofer (5:2:ש) implies it would be Kosher Bedieved, but one should be very careful to avoid a flat base. The Mishna Berura (Mishnat Sofrim ש) is ...


6

If the Nun's were not inverted but were left as regular letters, it is kosher bdieved. Source: Sefer Keses Hasofer (Mahadura Tinyana), Chakira 17 (s.v. v'hinei hageonum) citing Noda Beyhudah and others (Sefer Keses Hasofer is the classic source for Hilchos Stam by Rav Shlomo Ganzfried, the author of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch and is probably the standard ...


6

Bavli, Shabas 104, is such a source. Plus, there are a number of chapters of Tanach written as alphabetical acrostics (albeit with omissions or a slightly different order in some cases): specifically, Pslams 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, and 145; Proverbs 31; and most of Lamentations.


5

Neither the Leningrad nor Aleppo codices have that spelling. Nor does the Mikraot Gedolot haKeter critical edition. As per @NoamSienna, it appears your version has an error.


5

The Yalkut Shimoni (Ruth, 608) makes the same observation: (translation mine) Rabbi Chiyya says "All the starts of verses in Ruth have "Vav"s except for 8, since she cleaved to the Covenant that was given on the eighth day (circumcision). The justifcation for the "vav"s is : Woe ("Vai") to the generation that judges their judges. Woe to the ...


5

Chida: every single Passuk begins with a vov aside for 8 pesukim, the eight verses begin with 8 letters YUD SHIN AYIN YUD BEIS ALEPH HEH LAMED. His students explained that the letters can be read as YISH’I B’OHEL. All the pesukim begin with a vov, a link, but my salvation comes from the ohel (tent), that Moavite males were responsible and not the females ...


4

I discovered that the מגילת אסתר of the תורה שלֵמה has some answers: For פרמשתא, citing מדרש רבי עקיבא בן יוסף על אותיות קטנות:‎ פרמשתא, ש׳ ת׳ של פרמשתא קטנה, הסר פ׳ ור׳ וישאר שמתא.‏ This one is hard to translate and explain. So I'll leave it as is. For ויזתא: The Gemara in Megila (16b) says in the name of Rav Yochanan - the Vav of ...


4

It's very common in some of the manuscripts - for example, the codex of the Prophets from the Qaraite synagogue in Cairo, which was written by Moshe ben Asher. There, it features in every the occasional consonantal aleph (and might therefore be understood to be a mappiq). This is generally considered to have been a feature of the Palestinian vocalisation ...


4

The HaEmek Dovor explains unexpected dageshim as an intensification of the meaning. Thus, in Gen 43:26 he says that: the dagesh in the Aleph indicates the strength of the bringing, to show that each one tried to present the gift with their own hand rather than have one or two of the brothers bring it on behalf of all of them. This was in order to show ...


4

This is the picture from my sefer, which experts have identified as either German or Czech. As you can see, there is a beis visible inside the Peh but it made neither in the style of the old European Bet Yosef ksav nor the Mishna Berurah's modification.


4

There are 304,805 letters in the Torah. There are 79,976 words in the Torah. There are 5,888 or 5,845 verses in the Torah. Bereishit (Genesis) 12 Sidrot 50 Chapters 1,534 Verses Shmot (Exodus) 11 Sidrot 40 Chapter 1,209 Verses Vayikra (Leviticus) 10 Sidrot 27 Chapters 859 Verses Bamidbar (Numbers) 10 Sidrot 36 Chapters 1,288 ...


4

There are many different substitution systems. I'm not aware of any place that puts them all nicely in a catalog, but in Sefer HaErchin Chabad in the section (two different volumes of it, actually) about letters it intersperses many examples of the types of substitutions. The one you are looking at is based on the part of the mouth where the letter is ...


3

Shabbos 104a מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה Why is the leg of the gimmel sticking towards the dalet? Because the "gomel" - bestower- of kindness runs after the "dalim" - downtrodden. Why is ...


3

If you look at a sefer torah written in the 'Sefaradi' style you will see that the Shin is not quite the same as the one you posted. Although it does have more of a base, you will see that it is still on a tilt. Only the bottom left corner reaches the bottom, the right side is raised. See this image for an example (from here):


3

פה נטמן - here is buried/interred ...


3

The book מפתח הדלת, by ישראל חיים (Chaim) Lenchitz, revised edition, 5766, quotes this from Radak's Michlol, though I don't know where it is in Michlol: צריך אדם להזהר ולהבדיל בין ו״ו ובית רפה That is: A person must be careful and distinguish between vav and light ves. The same book claims that Radak says the same (in the same place in Michlol) ...


3

See the article on parashah in Wikipedia . Some extracts from it: A parashah formally means a section of a biblical book in the masoretic text of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).[1] In the masoretic text, parashah sections are designated by various types of spacing between them, as found in Torah scrolls, scrolls of the books of Nevi'im or Ketuvim ...


3

DoubleAA is correct that a Torah that is missing scribal traditions is still valid. However, if another Torah is available, the Torah inconsistent with tradition should not be used. (see Shevet HaLevi 4, Yoreh Deah 141) In addition, if the Torah was from a tradition that normally conforms with the small and large letters and, nevertheless, is consistently ...


3

R. Yitzchak Hutner (in Pachad Yitzchak to Sukkos) writes that the reason a "hei" was added was because Avraham was becoming a new creation, so to speak - being fashioned from new. As the Midrash writes, (Midrash Rabba 12:2) when God created the world, He did so with the letter "hei". Whatever that may mean, the letter "hei" is clearly symbolic (and maybe ...


3

I heard in a shiur from R' Moshe Wolfson that Avraham was given his new name in the context of the promise to have children and become a nation. The letter ה is the אות ההולדה, the letter of birth, as it is the feminine letter (the letter that turns a word into a grammatically feminine word). Avraham was being given the ability to father a nation, ...


3

I was told that the reason is that since there is no 'thousands' letter equivalent, we tend to show it as a separate indicator. It is similar to people who write the secular year as a two digit rather than a four digit number. Thus, the thousand indicator is shown as the letter with an apostrophe.


3

You find this a lot in older Sefarim. Usually you can find these in the margin closest to the binding - often hidden in the binding. It seems that this was how they differentiate between versions. Like between Pessach, Sukkoth and Shavuoth Machzorim, which use plenty common pages. In the case of the Machzor Rabba, they really used the same text for both ...


2

If this question is relevant to you, consult your rabbi. (Indeed, if it's relevant to you, then you're getting married — mazal tov! — and should have someone officiating your wedding who knows the main rules, knows how to find out the other rules, and will be able to answer this question for you.) But for background information, here's a source: ...


2

Yod, like most other letters, can only get a dot in it called a "dagesh chazak." This indicates that the affected consonant should be geminated, or doubled the way you would double, e.g. the 'b' sound in "subbasement." So, for the word in your example, שִיֵּץ, you would say "shiy-yatz" rather than "shiyatz," and your name would be pronounced "Chay-ya" ...


2

שֵׂטִים (also written סֵטִים) occurs in Tehillim 101:3 and Hoshea 5:2 and translates to something like "deeds/people that veer." Rashi on the verse from Hoshea connects this word to the root also found in the more common word סוטה‎ sotah: סטים - לשון כי תשטה אשתו (במדבר ה') לסור מן הדרך דישטולמנ"ט בלע"ז Setim - This language is used in the verse ...


2

I can answer only 1 of your questions, as I have memorized the names of all the 63 tractates ... unless you want to include the "small tractates" that appear after Avodah zarah (such as Avot D'Rav Nattan) - I think that would add another 5 or 6 to that number. Many tractates only have mishnah - not Gemarrah. Wikipedia article on Talmud should provide you ...


2

This calls for a crash course in the evolution of the religion today known as Judaism but even a crash course would more befit a book than this site. Briefly, there were 12 tribes (approx). As a unified group, he tribes accepted the Mosaic code of written laws. After settling in the land and having a couple of kings, the nation broke into 2 parts -- the ...


1

Thank you! Also, apparently, bMenachot 29b: R. Ashi said, I have observed that scribes who are most particular add a vertical stroke to the roof of the letter heth,and suspend the [inner] leg of the letter he. They add a vertical stroke to the roof of the letter heth, signifying thereby that He lives in the heights of the world. (Soncino translation here).



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