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Indeed, the Beit Yosef (OC 36) cites the Gemara you reference and claims that the ש should have a pointed base. The Peri Megadim (EA end of 32) is unsure if this is a necessary component of the letter. The Keset HaSofer (5:2:ש) implies it would be Kosher Bedieved, but one should be very careful to avoid a flat base. The Mishna Berura (Mishnat Sofrim ש) is ...


Bavli, Shabas 104, is such a source. Plus, there are a number of chapters of Tanach written as alphabetical acrostics (albeit with omissions or a slightly different order in some cases): specifically, Pslams 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, and 145; Proverbs 31; and most of Lamentations.


There are many different substitution systems. I'm not aware of any place that puts them all nicely in a catalog, but in Sefer HaErchin Chabad in the section (two different volumes of it, actually) about letters it intersperses many examples of the types of substitutions. The one you are looking at is based on the part of the mouth where the letter is ...


If you look at a sefer torah written in the 'Sefaradi' style you will see that the Shin is not quite the same as the one you posted. Although it does have more of a base, you will see that it is still on a tilt. Only the bottom left corner reaches the bottom, the right side is raised. See this image for an example (from here):


Thank you! Also, apparently, bMenachot 29b: R. Ashi said, I have observed that scribes who are most particular add a vertical stroke to the roof of the letter heth,and suspend the [inner] leg of the letter he. They add a vertical stroke to the roof of the letter heth, signifying thereby that He lives in the heights of the world. (Soncino translation here).

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