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12

The oldest reference to this tradition that I am aware of is the Taz ("Turei Zahav"), by David haLevi Segal, 17th c. הלוחש על המכה או על החולה ורוקק ואחר כך קורא פסוק מן התורה אין לו חלק לעוה"ב One who whispers over a wound or over a sick person and who spits, and who then recites a verse from the Torah has no portion in the world to come. ...


8

When we say in the shema, "ה' אחד", we mean that God is one in the fact that he is indivisible in such a way that is unimaginable. (See Mishna Torah, Hil. Yesodei Hatorah 1:7.) Here, the intention is not the oneness of God as an entity, but rather God's uniqueness in that he is the only "godly" being and that no other "gods" have such power. So the verse ...


8

Nusach Ari (as arranged by R' Shneur Zalman of Liadi) counts it before Aleinu. Shaar Hakollel (49:7) explains that this way, the kaddish recited after Aleinu also covers the chapter of Tehillim (Psalm 67) and the verses from the Torah (Lev. 23:15-16) recited after the sefirah. Mishnah Berurah (489:2) gives another reason: this way it's done as early as ...


6

This minhag is mentioned much earlier than the Taz, in the sefer עמק ברכה, by Rav Avraham Horowitz (1550-1615), in a gloss by his son, the Shelah Hakodosh: Some people are accustomed to spit during Aleinu, but they don't know why they spit, and the majority of people nowadays do not understand Loshon Hakodesh at all and spit when they say "and we bow ...


5

The sefer צלותא דאברהם here writes that the siddur of רב עמרם and the סדר תפילה of the Rambam and the ספר המנהיג and the אבודרהם do not mention the reciting of the Aleinu prayer every day. But it is mentioned in the Tur in Siman 133, and the Rema brings it in the name of the כל בו. The Bach there writes that it was introduced at the end of davening in ...


5

The Chabad (intellectual) explanation is as you'd mentioned, "not to benefit from the saliva generated while talking about idol worship." I'd presume a more basic explanation would be to add stress: "they bow to these worthless idols and pray to a god that can't save them. Ptooey to that!" It's said that not too far in the past, many synagogues with an ...


3

It is noted in the sefer Maaseh Rav (69) that the Vilna Gaon said sefirah after aleinu. The Kovetz Mefarshim on the Maaseh Rav gives a reason for this order. He says that aleinu was placed as part of teffilah (siman 132), and sefirah is not a part of teffilah: rather it is a mitzvah by itself. Based on this, one should not make an interruption with a ...


3

To supplement, not supplant, R'Alex's good answer, I'll just note that a synagogue I used to pray in had minyanim for maariv at several times during the evening, including one that was, at this time of year, such that the end of the service was during a time that some maintain is not yet tzes hakochavim. That minyan counted the omer after alenu, so as to ...


3

It is really hard to determine what is an error when dealing with an area that is primarily down to Minhag. For instance, in the case at hand, the oldest siddurim(those of Reb Amram HaGaon and Reb Saadia HaGaon) end with Aleinu, as does the siddur of the Mekubalim, and the actual siddur of the Arizal(which was recently published in photostat with facing ...


3

First Because we say: שֶׁהֵם מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לְהֶבֶל וָרִיק וּמִתְפַּלְּלִים אֶל אֵל לֹא יושיע That is we are illustrating the Idol worshipers pray to heavenly bodies but we do not. (Likutie Maharich,Chelek Beis,Daf Kuf) Aleinu, was written by Yeshouah Ben Nun he was compared to moon. That is the Gemara in Baba Basra (75a) says: The face of ...


3

(This is in answer to your second question, what the text means, not your first, why it was chosen.) The text is from Z'charya 14:9. The commentaries there explain that it means that God will be seen as one by everyone.


3

In R' Saadiah Gaon's siddur, the word שהוא (beginning of the sixth line) is missing, so you have five stiches of four words each from there until ככתוב. Which raises the possibility that this part isn't meant to be in couplets; in fact, I'd analyze it as a triplet (each part of which describes Hashem's greatness in some way) followed by a couplet (each half ...


3

I have seen this among Lubavitchers to this day. Specifically (since you ask about synagogues), I have seen it in the large basement Lubavitch synagogue at 770 Eastern Parkway in Brooklyn, New York, as well as in some others in the States; I assume it's done in Israel also, but don't recall well enough, one way or the other, to attest to it. In my ...


2

Actually, a text can be both a prayer and a piyyut. A prayer is a type of content, whereas a piyyut is a type of style. A prayer is when one talks to God (OED, MW); it need not contain a bracha. A piyyut is a style of a text (which may or not be a prayer) similar to poetry. Therefore, there are selections which are prayers, piyyutim, both, or none. Mi ...


2

To expound on @IsaacMoses' answer, I would consider just the line "וַאֲנַחְנוּ כּורְעִים וּמִשְתַחֲוִים לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְלָכִים הַקָדוֹשׁ בָרוּךְ הוּא" as the main emphasis in breaking the pattern, to then continue with a praising description of God. Just like on Rosh Hashana in the piyut מלך עליון, we break with "אבל מלך אביון" to give a ...


2

I recall from English Lit. in high school that sometimes a poet deliberately breaks in one point from the poem's overall rhyme/rhythm scheme to emphasize that point. Perhaps that's what's going on here. We emphasize this line in other ways, such as by bowing and possibly with melodic emphasis (although that may just be a consequence of the bowing).


2

First you need to determine if the original custom was to say it at the end of Aleinu in the first place. There is an article on exactly this subject in the latest Hakirah, however the full article will not be available online until the next issue is sent out.


2

Its first appearance in the siddur is as part of the malchiot blessing for Rosh Hashana mussaf. It later made its way into daily usage, and I think they tie that in to Jews facing daily religious persecution from Christians. I don't know exactly when off-hand. But it's most incredibly likely that in Rambam's time, it only appeared in the siddur for Rosh ...


1

From my experience of davening in a few shuls for RS and YK(i live in boro park which is predominantly hossidim) it is not done during the silent 3amidho, but only during the repetition. Also, during the repetition it is depending on the minhag of the shul. I davened at a few places where everyone falls coree3m on RS, some places have only the shalia7 9ibbur ...



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