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12

The oldest reference to this tradition that I am aware of is the Taz ("Turei Zahav"), by David haLevi Segal, 17th c. הלוחש על המכה או על החולה ורוקק ואחר כך קורא פסוק מן התורה אין לו חלק לעוה"ב One who whispers over a wound or over a sick person and who spits, and who then recites a verse from the Torah has no portion in the world to come. ...


9

Nusach Ari (as arranged by R' Shneur Zalman of Liadi) counts it before Aleinu. Shaar Hakollel (49:7) explains that this way, the kaddish recited after Aleinu also covers the chapter of Tehillim (Psalm 67) and the verses from the Torah (Lev. 23:15-16) recited after the sefirah. Mishnah Berurah (489:2) gives another reason: this way it's done as early as ...


8

When we say in the shema, "ה' אחד", we mean that God is one in the fact that he is indivisible in such a way that is unimaginable. (See Mishna Torah, Hil. Yesodei Hatorah 1:7.) Here, the intention is not the oneness of God as an entity, but rather God's uniqueness in that he is the only "godly" being and that no other "gods" have such power. So the verse ...


7

This minhag is mentioned much earlier than the Taz, in the sefer עמק ברכה, by Rav Avraham Horowitz (1550-1615), in a gloss by his son, the Shelah Hakodosh: Some people are accustomed to spit during Aleinu, but they don't know why they spit, and the majority of people nowadays do not understand Loshon Hakodesh at all and spit when they say "and we bow ...


6

According to the Art Scroll Siddur bend the knees at kor'im (bend the knee), bend at the waist at mishtachavim (bow) and straighten up after modim (acknowledge) before lifnei melelech. I do not know where Rabbi Nosson Scherman got the original psak that this is the method. It is also the way that I was taught to daven in cheder (lo those many years ago) but ...


5

While I've yet to see a source that says that one shouldn't bow, sources that say that one should include the following (in rough chronological order): • Emek Berakha (§40, here), by R' Avraham ben Shabbetai Horowitz, with notes by his son, the Shnei Luchot haBrit. No reason is provided for the bowing, save that the whole host of heaven is listening. • ...


5

The sefer צלותא דאברהם here writes that the siddur of רב עמרם and the סדר תפילה of the Rambam and the ספר המנהיג and the אבודרהם do not mention the reciting of the Aleinu prayer every day. But it is mentioned in the Tur in Siman 133, and the Rema brings it in the name of the כל בו. The Bach there writes that it was introduced at the end of davening in ...


5

The Chabad (intellectual) explanation is as you'd mentioned, "not to benefit from the saliva generated while talking about idol worship." I'd presume a more basic explanation would be to add stress: "they bow to these worthless idols and pray to a god that can't save them. Ptooey to that!" It's said that not too far in the past, many synagogues with an ...


4

Here are some! For Nusach Ashkenaz: At the end of shacharis (when there's no mussaf) At the end of mincha At the end of ma'ariv At the end of mussaf At the end of kidush l'vana At a b'ris Shemoneh Esrei of mussaf on Rosh Hashanah Shemoneh Esrei of mussaf on Yom Kippur For Nusach Chabad: All of the above (except, perhaps, after a bris: it's not ...


4

Those words were removed following a decree by Frederick I of Prussia in 1703 http://www.yeshiva.org.il/midrash/shiur.asp?id=4087


3

I have seen this among Lubavitchers to this day. Specifically (since you ask about synagogues), I have seen it in the large basement Lubavitch synagogue at 770 Eastern Parkway in Brooklyn, New York, as well as in some others in the States; I assume it's done in Israel also, but don't recall well enough, one way or the other, to attest to it. In my ...


3

It is noted in the sefer Maaseh Rav (69) that the Vilna Gaon said sefirah after aleinu. The Kovetz Mefarshim on the Maaseh Rav gives a reason for this order. He says that aleinu was placed as part of teffilah (siman 132), and sefirah is not a part of teffilah: rather it is a mitzvah by itself. Based on this, one should not make an interruption with a ...


3

To supplement, not supplant, R'Alex's good answer, I'll just note that a synagogue I used to pray in had minyanim for maariv at several times during the evening, including one that was, at this time of year, such that the end of the service was during a time that some maintain is not yet tzes hakochavim. That minyan counted the omer after alenu, so as to ...


3

It is really hard to determine what is an error when dealing with an area that is primarily down to Minhag. For instance, in the case at hand, the oldest siddurim(those of Reb Amram HaGaon and Reb Saadia HaGaon) end with Aleinu, as does the siddur of the Mekubalim, and the actual siddur of the Arizal(which was recently published in photostat with facing ...


3

First Because we say: שֶׁהֵם מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לְהֶבֶל וָרִיק וּמִתְפַּלְּלִים אֶל אֵל לֹא יושיע That is we are illustrating the Idol worshipers pray to heavenly bodies but we do not. (Likutie Maharich,Chelek Beis,Daf Kuf) Aleinu, was written by Yeshouah Ben Nun he was compared to moon. That is the Gemara in Baba Basra (75a) says: The face of ...


3

In the Shemoneh Esrei of Mussaf on Rosh Hashanah. If I'm not mistaken, that is where the tefillah was originally established (see here).


3

(This is in answer to your second question, what the text means, not your first, why it was chosen.) The text is from Z'charya 14:9. The commentaries there explain that it means that God will be seen as one by everyone.


3

In R' Saadiah Gaon's siddur, the word שהוא (beginning of the sixth line) is missing, so you have five stiches of four words each from there until ככתוב. Which raises the possibility that this part isn't meant to be in couplets; in fact, I'd analyze it as a triplet (each part of which describes Hashem's greatness in some way) followed by a couplet (each half ...


3

We bend the knees during the words "ואנחנו כורעים" and bow during the word "ומשתחוים" (Shulchan Shlomo: Siman 132, Sif 2 - as cited in sefer "Ishei Yisrael"). Furthermore, it is important to note that the Rema (in Siman 132, Sif 2) teaches that after reciting the phrase "שהם משתחוים להבל וריק ומתפללים אל אל לא יושיע" (which notes how others pray to their ...


2

Clarifying all the above -- the emphasis is not so much on G-d being One, but then, also, "His name will be One". Name is based on external perception; all will regard Him as such.


2

To expound on @IsaacMoses' answer, I would consider just the line "וַאֲנַחְנוּ כּורְעִים וּמִשְתַחֲוִים לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְלָכִים הַקָדוֹשׁ בָרוּךְ הוּא" as the main emphasis in breaking the pattern, to then continue with a praising description of God. Just like on Rosh Hashana in the piyut מלך עליון, we break with "אבל מלך אביון" to give a ...


2

I recall from English Lit. in high school that sometimes a poet deliberately breaks in one point from the poem's overall rhyme/rhythm scheme to emphasize that point. Perhaps that's what's going on here. We emphasize this line in other ways, such as by bowing and possibly with melodic emphasis (although that may just be a consequence of the bowing).


2

First you need to determine if the original custom was to say it at the end of Aleinu in the first place. There is an article on exactly this subject in the latest Hakirah, however the full article will not be available online until the next issue is sent out.


2

Actually, a text can be both a prayer and a piyyut. A prayer is a type of content, whereas a piyyut is a type of style. A prayer is when one talks to God (OED, MW); it need not contain a bracha. A piyyut is a style of a text (which may or not be a prayer) similar to poetry. Therefore, there are selections which are prayers, piyyutim, both, or none. Mi ...


2

Its first appearance in the siddur is as part of the malchiot blessing for Rosh Hashana mussaf. It later made its way into daily usage, and I think they tie that in to Jews facing daily religious persecution from Christians. I don't know exactly when off-hand. But it's most incredibly likely that in Rambam's time, it only appeared in the siddur for Rosh ...


2

From my experience of davening in a few shuls for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (I live in Boro Park, which is predominantly hossidim) it is not done during the silent 3amidho (עמידה), but only during the repetition. Also, during the repetition, it depends on the minhag of the shul. I davened at a few places where everyone falls coree3m (כורעים) on Rosh ...


2

For sepharadim: At the end of shacharit (when there's no Mussaf) At the end of mincha At the end of arvit At the end of mussaf (even on Yom Kippur) Shemoneh Esrei of Mussaf on Rosh Hashanah Shemoneh Esrei of Mussaf on Yom Kippur


2

Actually, the first paragraph of Aleinu, can be viewed as an explanation or "list" that expounds on the first sentence: "It is our obligation to praise the Master of all..." (Why???): ... "That he did not make us like the nations of the earth..." This is not any insult to the other nations by any means. I am thanking G-d for making me DIFFERENT than other ...


1

According to the Art Scroll Siddur bend the knees at kor'im (bend the knee), bend at the waist at mishtachavim (bow) and straighten up after modim (acknowledge) before lifnei melelech. Of course this is just the instruction posted in the siddur. I do not know where Rabbi Nosson Scherman obtained the particular psak that this is the correct methodology. I do ...



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