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"Im Bat Gilo" -- very roughly, "with a woman suited to his nature." The Gemara Nedarim 39b says that a hospital visit is especially efficacious for the sick fellow if the visitor is "ben gilo" with respect to the visitee. Rashi (or whatever medieval commentary there pretends to be Rashi) says simply -- "roughly the same age, not a young man visiting an old ...
It's a Yiddish abbreviation for Kein Ayin Hora - or in Hebrew Bli Ayin Hara. Simply stated without the evil eye; we're not discussing [something] in order to get [it] punished due to our jealousy.
Our dreidel is of relatively recent vintage and there is no evidence that it existed prior to a few centuries ago. It stood for (before it's being adapted for chanukah) N = Nisht nothing to put into the pot G = Gantz Take all H = Halbe Take half Sh = Shtel Put coins into the pot One may perhaps still find deep meaning and significance in the dreidel ...
See Chasam Sofer on Shabbos 147b, http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=21655&st=&pgnum=80. That the names of the months come from the Babylonians, so what? The name Amraphel comes from Babylonian or some similar language, but it is darshened as having a Hebrew meaning. Same with Sancheriv and lots of other examples.
יש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת על ידי מסירות נפש באמת נתעלה ונהפוך כל הרע שבו לטוב גמור והוא ר״ת עקיבא יש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת והיינו במסירות נפש נתעלה למעלה למעלה from http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pagefeed/hebrewbooks_org_20632_507.pdf (Heichal Habracha by the Komarna Rebbe)
In addition to the Chasam Sofer already quoted, another source is the Shaar Yisachar in the name of "holy seforim", who addresses kabbalistically why the acronym holds despite the halacha that Iyar is written with two yuds. The Lubavitcher Rebbe explains the concept at length here.
Yes! I have always found קובץ ראשי תיבות וקיצורים and אוצר ראשי תיבות (free older print on HebrewBooks) to be extremely useful in breaking down roshei teivos that I did not understand. Additionally, while I haven't used them at all (and therefore can't vouch for their reliability/usefulness), these websites (1, 2) from a Google search may also be of use to ...
This is complete conjecture, but so it's the assumption that they really played dradel with letters that stood for something. Originally, the letters were נשג׳א as per maseches Avoda Zara 36b בית דין של חשמונאי גזרו ישראל הבא על עבודת כוכבים חייב משום נשג׳א. Rashi explains נ=נדה דרבנן. ש=שפחה. ג=גויה. א=אשת איש.
The Bnai Yissaschar's answer (original here in the note) is that the letters נ ג ה ש should properly be rearranged to spell גשנה (lit. to Goshen). This is a reference to Bereisheis 46:28 when Yehuda is sent ahead to Goshen to prepare for the stay of Yaakov and his children in Mitzrayim. This served as the first precedent and as a perpetual reminder of the ...
The Bnei Yissaschar (following on from LN6596) says that these letters are an accronym for גוף שכל נפש הכל. גוף כנגד גלות פרס where Haman tried to destroy the Jewish people physically. שכל כנגד גלות יון where the Greeks tried to destroy the Jewish people philosophically. נפש כנגד גלות בבל where the Babylonians tried to destroy the Jewish people spiritually. ...
We'll go with Double AA's Mishne Torah for now. Rambam's Mishneh Torah was compiled, according to Wikipedia, " between 1170 and 1180 (4930–4940)." It begins (Yesodei HaTorah 1:1) "יסוד היסודות ועמוד החכמות."
A rav explained to me that the word "Gilo" come from "gil" related to "gilah" meaning "joy". So, "Im bat gilo" means "the daughter of his joy". The concept seems slightly Kabbalistic, in the sense that one's true fullest joy is hidden until he gets married. When a man finds his Kallah, she draws out his inner joy, so that is the sense of being "bat gilo".
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