The Tosafot or Tosafos (lit. "additions") are medieval commentaries on the Talmud. They take the form of critical and explanatory glosses, printed, in almost all Talmud editions, on the outer margin and opposite Rashi's notes. The authors of the Tosafot are known as Tosafists ("ba'ale ha-tosafot").

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Techeilet – Shittat haBa'alei Tosefot

Per Ptil Tekhelet, the shitta of the Ba'alei Tosefot (following Rashi) is that half of the strings in the tzitzit are to be made of techeilet, as opposed to 1/4 (rov haposkim) or 1/8 (Rambam). ...
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Tosfos vs Tosfos HaRosh

I have noticed that the Tosfos HaRosh very often parallels the Tosfos on the page. Sometimes he presents almost identical information in a slightly different way, but very often he seems to be saying ...
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Tosafot Peirush

I am looking for a sefer that offers an in depth explanation of tosafos (and preferably rashi) to aid me in studying in depth on my own. The ideal would be to have it in english, but a hebrew ...
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Tying teffilin knot everyday

What is the "tying" referred to in תוס‘ ד"ה ואידך הני שכיחן in Chullin 9a, in which Rebbeinu Tam seems to hold that tying teffilin every day is not obligatory? (It is not referring to putting on ...
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Massacre of Baalei Tosafos

There is a famous story about the Baalei Tosafos using their own blood to write their pirush on the chapter Merubah in Bava Kamma before they were massacred. Is there a source for this?
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What are some good resources for deciphering a Tosfos comment that I can't figure out?

What are some good resources for deciphering a Tosfos comment that I can't figure out? Here is what I am looking for in a resource: When Tosfos brings another gemoro this resource should provide ...
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Repetition in Sefer Yere'im

The sefer Yere'im of R. Eliezer of Metz which lists the 613 mitzvos seems to count several identical mitzvos. E.g. mitzvos 25-30 (according to the newer editions). Although I could creatively ...
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Shin of tefillin mentioned in the Gemara originally a reference to the division of the compartments of the Shel Rosh?

The source for [at least one of] the Shins on the tefillah shel rosh is the Gemara (b.Menahoth 35a): ואמר אביי שי"ן של תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני וצריך שיגיע חריץ למקום התפר רב דימי מנהרדעא אמר כיון ...
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Memorization of the Talmud by Tosafists

I have heard a story (referenced here for example) about R. Isaac of Dampierre making sure that each tractate of the talmud be memorized by one of his students. What are the earliest sources for this ...
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Any recommendations to help learn a Tosfot in Bava Batra?

Which Sefer/Sforim can one use to help when learning a Tosfos in Bava Basra as there is nothing online for this Masechta?
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What is a “royal language”?

In explaining the gemara (Avoda Zarah 10a) and Rashi, Tosfos write (sv שאין להם לא כתב ולא לשון): לכך פירש ר"י כתב לשון חשוב שהמלכים משתמשין בו כעין חכמת יונית....לשון מלכות קאמר‏ ...
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Who is the author of “תוספות ”אילמלי on כתובות ל״ג עמ׳ ב׳?

תוספות on כתובות ל״ג עמ׳ ב׳‎ ("אלמלי") explains that the גמרא assumes that חנניה,‎ מישאל,‎ & עזריה were not forced to actually worship idolatry, but merely to bow down to a ...
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Tosafoth's unique opinion that Building is biblically allowed on Yom Tov, contradicted by a simple Gemara in Beitzah?

Beitzah 9b seems to undermine a famous Tosafoth in Shabbath 95a that introduces a fascinating Hiddush that Boneh (construction) on Yom Tov should be Mutar, but is forbidden because of rabbinic ...
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Tosfos Within the Same Mesechta

Are the comments of Tosfos in the same Mesechta generally considered to be aligned, meaning that, if there is an apparent contradiction, we try and look for a resolution? How about Tosfos in ...
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Who is the voice of Tosafoth?

Tosafoth were the sons-in-law, grandchildren, and students of Rashi (and their students), and "they" wrote a commentary on the Talmud that is often at odds with Rashi's earlier commentary. Sometimes ...
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How do we explain the criticism of Rashi by his grandsons?

Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki, better known today as Rashi, was easily the most prolific commentator on the Tanach and Talmud in history in the sense that he commentated on most of the Talmud and, I believe, ...
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What does Tosfos 46B mean by “for the sake of the sukkah”?

Tosafos Sukkah 46B talks of the rabbis making a decree that one cannot eat the esrog. Tosfos says that in Eretz Yisrael, the decree is not made on account of the sukkah. Whereas in the diaspora, the ...
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French and Italian are Related: Linguistic Knowledge in the 12th-14th Centuries

In this answer to a question that concerned the ways in which languages change and evolve, @SethJ made reference to a sugya that discusses the differences between different dialects of Aramaic, and a ...
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Who wrote the Piskei Tosfos?

After the section of Gemara in most sefarim, before the Rosh there is a section of the Piskei Tosfos. Who authored this work?
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When not a problem of lifnei iver, still mitzvah to be mafrish (seperate) from issur

Tosfos says in Shabbos Daf 3a that even when there isn't a problem of lifnei iver since the person would be able to get to the prohibited thing in another way, still there is an "issur d'rabbanan" ...
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Explanation in Tosfos Pesachim Daf 99b

Tosfos writes the following in Pesachim Daf 99b: לא יפחתו לו מארבע כוסות. מתוך הלשון משמע קצת שאין נותנין לבניו ולבני ביתו כי אם לעצמו והוא מוציא את כולם בשלו וסברא הוא דמאי שנא ארבע כוסות מקידוש ...
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“Secular” studies in the Rhineland academies of the 11th-13th centuries

This is perhaps a fairly specific question, and I don't know if it belongs here or on the History stack exchange, but I would like to know more about the Rhineland academies that were headed by people ...
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Authors of Daat Zkeinim

My question is very simple and straightforward: does anybody know who authored the Torah commentary, Daat Zkeinim (דעת זקנים)? I know that it was written by some of the Baalei haTosafot, but would ...
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Why does “בני ישראל” sometimes include גרים and sometimes not?

Tosafos (to Suka 28, Sanhedrin 86, and M'nachos 61; and Tos'fos Harosh to Sanhedrin 86) cite various verses containing the words "בני ישראל", b'ne Yisrael. In some cases, they note, the g'mara seeks ...
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Source in Tosafos for playing ball on Yom Tov

I know there is a Tosafos in Beitza 12a that discusses playing ball on Yom Tov, but I remember learning another Tosafos which said something like "for children under nine it would be permitted on ...
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Longest Tosfot in Shas

Occasionally when learning gemara one comes across an incredibly long and daunting Tosfot like s.v. Parah on Bava Kama 76a or an "iceberg"[1] such as s.v. Mah on Yoma 82a-b. (These are just examples.) ...