Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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3
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1answer
147 views

Difference between El and Eloah

El(אל) and Eloah(אלוה) are both singular forms (nouns), but its אל thats being used to form the plural Elim (אלים), and אלוה thats being used to form the plural Elohim (אלוה׳ם). Both singular forms ...
6
votes
2answers
95 views

Their altars…and *his* asheirah?

Shemot 34:13: כִּי אֶת מִזְבְּחֹתָם תִּתֹּצוּן וְאֶת מַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּן וְאֶת אֲשֵׁרָיו תִּכְרֹתוּן For you shall dismantle their altars, break their monuments, and cut down his ...
4
votes
1answer
82 views

Is there a difference in meaning between קָדֹֽשׁ and קֹֽדֶשׁ?

I am helping my son lain parshat Emor. He's having a hard time seeing the difference between קֹֽדֶשׁ and קָדֹ֥שׁ esp. when they are written the same. Usually, when I train students to lain, I try to ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Avodah Melachah; work what is the difference

The roots לאך and עבד are the basis to form the words that could be translated as 'work' מלאכה and עבדה. But what is the difference? What distinguishing work from work? Some times its prohibited to ...
3
votes
1answer
37 views

Why singular “וְלֹא הָיָה מַיִם” in Bamidbar 20:2?

The word מַיִם is, as far as I know, pretty consistently grammatically plural in Chumash (and, incidentally, in more modern Hebrew also). That is, the adjectives that modify it are plural adjectives, ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What's the difference between בְּמַיִם and בַּמַּיִם?

In Tanach, the noun מַיִם occasionally is prefixed with a ב־. When the noun is modified by an adjective, the word formed is בְּמַיִם, as in Bamidbar 24:7 "וְזַרְעוֹ בְּמַיִם רַבִּים", N'chemya 9:11 ...
6
votes
2answers
51 views

Understanding Wording in Bamidbar 16:6

Numbers 16:6 says: זאת עשו קחו לכם מחתות קרח וכל עדתו. This do: take you censers, Korah, and all his company; I'm struggling to understand the last three words which are in the third ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

צידה vs צָיִד? kri ksiv

What is the reason for the kri ksiv in 'בראשית פרק כ''ז פסוק ג, in which the ksiv is צידה but the kri צָיִד? See http://www.mechon-mamre.org/i/t/t0127.htm I would like to know the reason for how the ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

ויישם vs וַיּוּשָׂם

What is the reason for the kri ksiv in בראשית פרק כ''ד פסוק ל''ג, in which the ksiv is ויישם but the kri וַיּוּשַׂם? I would like to know the reason for how the ksiv fits in to the pasuk and how the ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

הוצא vs הַיְצֵא

What is the reason for the kri ksiv in בראשית פרק ח' פסוק י''ז, in which the ksiv is הוצא but the kri הַיְצֵא? I would like to know the reason for how the kri fits in to the pasuk and how the ksiv ...
0
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1answer
28 views

What is the root of the word ואורשנו in Bamidbar 14:12

What is the root of the word ואורשנו in this verse.?
0
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1answer
33 views

kri ksiv הַגָּגָה samuel 1 9:26 [closed]

What is the reason for the kri ksiv in שמואל א' פרק ט' פסוק כ''ו, in which the ksiv is הגג but the kri הַגָּגָה? I would like to know the reason for how the kri fits in to the pasuk and how the ksiv ...
3
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0answers
65 views

Vav/Waw Hahipuch (Conversive Waw) And the Sheva/Shewa that follows

A topic came up regarding pronuncation in a class i was recently in. The class is about leading prayers, and a question came up regarding how to pronounce certain words that have a shewa following the ...
2
votes
2answers
126 views

In relation to the verb to shoot, what does torah mean?

In relation to the hebrew verb to shoot YaRaH, what does torah literally mean? If the word torah comes from the hebrew verb, to shoot, then what does torah literally mean? does it mean "shooting" or ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

Unexpected Dageshim

I learned that a rule of Dageshim is that gutteral letters (אהחע''ר) reject dageshim. My question is why do we find 4 alephs (Genesis 43:26, Leviticus 23:17, Job 33:21, Ezra 8:18), 17 reishs (1 ...
1
vote
2answers
61 views

Does anyone have a suggestion for a good book on dikduk?

I'm looking for a good book on dikduk for strictly loshon hakodesh (for studying tanach and talmud) . Any suggestions? in english preferably
0
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2answers
76 views

What is the opposite of shalom?

Could anyone explain me the antonym of shalom? The antonym of light is darkness, but Yeshayahu seems to tell that the antonym of shalom is rah.. but isn't rah the antonym of tov, like in the etz ...
3
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0answers
28 views

On the Root 'ע'ט'פ (and 'ע'ט'ה)

The Lishon Hakodesh root 'ע'ט'פ seems to take on a different meaning in various canons/eras: Pentateuch: In the discussion regarding Jacob's manipulation of Laban's flock, we encounter the verse ...
-1
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1answer
60 views

And it was so? Perhaps mistranslated?

A speaker of modern Hebrew would translate the following expression from Genesis 1: וַיְהִי-כֵן "And it will be so." But every translation of Torah I have seen says "and it was so." Couldn't ...
8
votes
2answers
106 views

Is there a reason or pattern as to when the Torah uses אֵת instead of אֶת?

I noticed a mix of the two forms of the Hebrew objective marker commonly pronounced אֶת. in the Torah. (There is no English translation of this word. It is used only to notify that an object follows ...
3
votes
2answers
115 views

Grammar of Birchot HaShachar

I have at times noticed that there are disagreements in the grammar of certain brachot in Birchot haShachar. For example, the first brachah is "אשר נתן", one of the later ones is either (depending on ...
7
votes
5answers
274 views

רָקִיאַע or רָקִיַע

The מנחת שי at the beginning of בראשית (on "יהי רקיע") cites a מחלוקת whether the word 'רָקִיעַ' (and likewise for other words with a פתח גנובה) is pronounced as רָקִיאַע or as רָקִיַע, that is, with ...
7
votes
1answer
61 views

What does the ל of לבעבור mean?

Shemos 20:17: ויֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל הָעָם אַל תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ What does the 8th word in ...
4
votes
1answer
78 views

Why is the word “mitzvos” treated as grammatically masculine in certain prayers?

The prayer accompanying several mitzvos (such as putting on tallis and tefillin) expresses the desire that it be considered that the mitzvah is fulfilled as well as all the "613 mitzvos dependent on ...
13
votes
3answers
488 views

Were our symbols for trope and nekudos created by the Masoretes, or transmitted by them?

It is commonly said in secular sources that the shapes of the trope and nekudos we use today were invented by the Masoretes (7th to 11th Century CE), but I cannot find any source in our mesorah to ...
4
votes
0answers
47 views

Why not פִּטְדָּֽה?

Exodus 28:17 and 39:10 tell that the second stone in the first row of the breastplate of the high priest was פִּטְדָֽה (often translated as topaz). The first unaccented syllable is פִּטְ which is a ...
2
votes
4answers
82 views

Makers and Creators: Job 35:10 & 12:1 Kohelet singular v.s. plural

After reading the description of the Zohar from the Chabad website, I got confused: What is the correct translation for Job 35:10: 'My Maker', ' Our Maker', or Makers? After searching the internet ...
4
votes
1answer
71 views

Why דָּת in Esther but דַּת in kidushin?

There are two places "דָּת" appears in Tanach in a form that means "the law of": Esther 2:12 and 9:13. In both places it appears as "דָּת" with a kamatz.[1] Yet, when we marry, according to the ...
1
vote
1answer
94 views

Is there a chasidus that is makpid on dikduk?

I know siddur chabad meant to be meduyak but I'd like to know if other chassidus or their rebbes are makpid on correct dikduk / wording as I often read they are not on pronunciation, accentuation and ...
15
votes
1answer
274 views

Why are the names of some Masechtot in Aramaic while others are in Hebrew?

I noticed that the names of some Masechtot have an Aramaic plural ending - nun - such as "Gittin", while others have a Hebrew ending - mem - such as "Bikurim". Was there some pattern or logic in ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

Why does the Rambam change language?

In Hilchos Megillah V'Chanukah, the Rambam writes in 2:15 טו. כיצד חובת סעודה זו שיאכל בשר ויתקן סעודה נאה כפי אשר תמצא ידו, ושותה יין עד שישתכר וירדם בשכרות Why does the Rambam switch from ...
4
votes
1answer
74 views

In the Rosh Chodesh leining, why is “Shabbas b'Shabato” pronounced with a pasach?

Recently, I paid attention to the Rosh Chodesh Torah reading (Bamidbar/Numbers Chapter 28) and noticed that in verse 10, "olas Shabbas b'Shabato…", the word "Shabbas" is vowelized with a pasach (short ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

The use of tsere yod in Psalm 2:3

I can understand most of the breakdown of the word מוסרותימו in Psalm 2, thanks to your website viz masculine noun from root אסר with female plural ending ות. Also the poetic ending מו for 'their', ...
0
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2answers
57 views

Masculine Terms applied to God

Since ancient Israel was a patriarchal society, does that mean that the intermediary humans that wrote the Tanach were inclined to apply masculine aspects to God because men were dominant in those ...
4
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1answer
44 views

Were there specific locusts in reserve for the 8th plague?

Hashem's instructions to Moshe to bring the locusts reads as follows: וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה נְטֵה יָדְךָ עַל אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בָּאַרְבֶּה וכו And Hashem said to Moses, "stretch out your ...
1
vote
0answers
87 views

Are there rules on what are the correct vowels

I understand that, excluding the 24 books of Tenach, in all the Torah books (i.e. Mishna, Talmud...) we have no tradition on specific vowels. (I was reading a Shulchan Aruch Harav vowelized, in which ...
12
votes
3answers
3k views

Two words for “redeem”: what's the difference?

When we talk about "redeeming" a first-born son or a captive, we use "pidyon" (root פדה). When we talk about what God does for us we use "goel" (גאל). My dictionary translates both of these roots as ...
2
votes
2answers
60 views

Why is שלחה used as a masculine word?

In Shmuel 1 16:11, the word שלחה is used as a masculine word. The Mesora there lists 6 places where שלחה seems to be used as a masculine word. Another case is Bereishis 43:8 and another is Melachim 2 ...
0
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1answer
75 views

hebrew grammar query, Bamidbar 31:17

I seek to understand Bamidbar sedra mattos Chapter 31 verse 17. Specifically, the word הֲרֹגוּ is stumping me. It is not the kal impererative masculine plural. The word Hirgoo, הִרְגוּ, appears as the ...
4
votes
3answers
84 views

Why חלפות (=malei) and then חלפת (=chaser)?

Bereishit 45:22: לְכֻלָּם נָתַן לָאִישׁ חֲלִפוֹת שְׂמָלֹת וּלְבִנְיָמִן נָתַן שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת כֶּסֶף וְחָמֵשׁ חֲלִפֹת שְׂמָלֹת Why is the first occurence of the word "חלפות" written מלא (with ...
4
votes
1answer
24 views

Singular and plural in Maoz Tzur

In the first five paragraphs of Maoz Tzur, the first-person singular is used fifteen times. However, the first-person plural is used just once, in ושם תודה נזבח - and there a thanksgiving-offering we ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

What is the right way to say ברכו את ה׳ המברך?

What is the right way to say ברכו את ה׳ המברך? Is it ברכו את (pause) ה׳ המברך as I have heard or ברכו (pause) את ה׳ המברך? We do find the את having a relationship with ה׳ as in Rabbi Akiva's drosho: ...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

Why does the language in the 13 Midot of Drasha shift?

In shacharit, we recite the 13 middot (already a strange word) through which a piece of Torah text is explained (explicated?) This comes from Braita d'Rav Yishma'el and, admittedly, I haven't look at ...
5
votes
1answer
59 views

Dikduk Q: Rashi and Ibn Ezra on the Sar Hamashkim

In the end of Parshas Vayeishev, the Pasuk says the Sar HaMashkim 'Lo zachar es yosef' and 'Vayishkacheihu'. Rashi explains that the dual terminology indicates that he forgot him on that day (the day ...
6
votes
1answer
40 views

Gender in Vayishlach 33:6-7

In Vayishlach (Bereishis 33:6-7), Yaakov's wives and children bow to Esav. With regard to the maidservants and their sons, the verse states וַתִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ - in the feminine, whereas by Leah and ...
8
votes
2answers
159 views

What is the difference between (for example) “notein” and “hanotein”?

I was looking through the brachot this morning. Many are structured as identifying hashem as "one who __" such as "matir assurim" or "oteir yisro'el btif'arah." But the final three add in the letter ...
25
votes
4answers
396 views

Female praying in masculine language

When women daven (pray), even by ourselves, it is convention to daven with male-gendered words ("modeh" vs "moda" as one of many examples). Why is this; are there sources that say we should be doing ...
13
votes
4answers
458 views

Yisgadal or Yisgadel?

I've noticed that some people, when reciting kaddish, pronounce the first words as "yisgadal v'yiskadash" with a patach under the dalet of both words, while others say "yisgadel v'yisgadesh" with a ...
5
votes
1answer
47 views

What does Rashi mean by לין שם דבר?

Rashi on bereshis 24:23 says "לין שם דבר." ie. "lin" is a noun. How does that fit in the context considering that Eliezer was asking for a place to "lodge". Even though lodge can be a noun, in this ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

Why Mishna Berurah chooses chesronaM with a M in borei nefashos?

Mishna Berurah 202:3 quotes the nusach of borei nefashos as "Boreh Nefashos Rabos VeChesronaM" with a M in opposition to the common version vechesronaN with a N. As "vechesronan" is referring to ...